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Title: Coffee

  • An Afro-Arab Gift to the World

A PowerPoint Presentation
  • by
  • Richard W. Franke
  • Professor of Anthropology
  • Montclair State University

Anthropology 140Week 12LectureThis lecture
was last updated 18 March 2013
Learning objectives for week 12 to discover
the African origins of coffee to learn how the
Muslim world brought coffee out of Africa to
appreciate some of the ways coffee has
influenced world history to learn about Fair
Trade coffee's latest trend
Terms you should know Ethiopia Mocha Sufi TIP
Fair Trade
  • Sources used for this presentation
  • Braudel, Fernand. 1973. Capitalism and Material
    Life 14001800. New York Harper Colophon.
    Trans. By Miriam Kochan.
  • Dicum, Gregory, and Luttinger, Nina. 1999. The
    Coffee Book Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to
    the Last Drop. New York The New Press.
  • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History.
    New York Simon and Schuster. New Third Revised
  • Hattox, Ralph S. 1985. Coffee and Coffeehouses
    The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval
    Near East. Seattle University of Washington Near
    Eastern Studies No. 3.
  • Pendergrast, Mark. 1999. Uncommon Grounds The
    History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our
    World. New York Basic Books.
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • Anth 140

  • O Coffee! Thou dost dispel all care, thou are
    the object of desire to the scholar. This is the
    beverage of the friends of God.
  • In Praise of Coffee
  • Arabic poem, 1511

  • Coffee leads men to trifle away their time,
    scald their chops, and spend their money, all for
    a little base, black, thick, nasty, bitter,
    stinking nauseous puddle water.

  • coffee falls into your stomach, and
    straightawayideas begin to move.Things
    remembered. Similes arise, the paper is covered
    with ink.
  • Honoré de Balzac17991850

Coffee Facts
  • Coffee is
  • the second most valuable item of legal
    international trade after petroleum.
  • the largest food import of the United States by

Coffee Facts
  • The world drinks 2.25 billion cups of coffee per
  • The United States with 5 of the worlds
    population consumes 20 of the worlds coffee.

Coffee Facts
  • 20 million people around the world work on coffee
  • Every cup of coffee requires 1.4 square feet of
    land a little less than twice the size of a
    standard 8½ by 11 inch piece of paper.
  • For a total of 26.8 million acres.

Coffee Facts
  • The 13.6 billion pounds produced in 1996 would
    make a pyramid higher than the Eiffel Tower.

The Largest Producers in the 1990s
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Indonesia
  • Mexico
  • Ethiopia
  • Guatemala
  • India
  • -- 2.8 billion pounds annually
  • -- 1.8 billion
  • -- 900 million
  • -- 800 million
  • -- 475 million
  • -- 450 million
  • -- 425 million

  • But only 13 cents on the dollar goes to the
    farmers and laborers who produce the coffee.

Coffee Facts
  • While 67 cents goes for roasting, grinding,
    packaging, trucking, and advertising.
  • We will return to this problem in the final
    section of this presentation when we consider
    Fair Trade coffee.

Why Coffee?
  • Coffees famous active ingredient is caffeine,
    one of several hundred chemicals in a single cup.
  • Caffeine is a type of xantine, the name for a
    set of compounds found in tea, cocoa, and other

Why Coffee?
  • Caffeine 1,3,7-trimethylxanthineblocks the
    action of a brain neurotransmitter named
    adenosine. By blocking the ability of adenosine
    to bind with its receptors in the brain a
    binding that causes sedation caffeine
    effectively stimulates brain activity.

Why Coffee?
  • Coffee contains 80 to 150 milligrams of caffeine
    per cup, more than twice as much as a cola, and
    more per cup than tea.
  • Two cups of coffee produce enough increased
    brain activity to show up on an EEG

Why Coffee?
  • Four cups or more will increase the heart rate
    and the breathing.
  • Caffeine takes effect in most people within 30
    to 60 minutes.

  • Too much caffeine affects the central nervous
    system, leading to anxiety, irritability,
    nervousness, lightheadedness, or diarrhea.

  • Habitual drinkers suffer from fatigue and
    pounding headaches when they try to stop or
    reduce their intake.

  • Caffeine interferes with tranquilizers such as
    valium, but caffeines effects can be heightened
    when ingested while taking birth control pills
    and some other drugs that cause the caffeine to
    accumulate in the body.

Caffeine As Medicine
  • Caffeine dilates the blood vessels leading to
    the heart, thus increasing blood flow, while
    restricting blood flow in the head, which helps
    to diminish headaches even migraines.

Caffeine As Medicine
  • Xanthines such as caffeine dilate the
    bronchioles in the lungs and relax the smooth
    muscles which regulate respiration. A couple cups
    of coffee can reduce the severity of an asthma
    attack something known for centuries.

Caffeine As Medicine
  • Statistical research suggests that regular
    coffee drinkers are less likely to commit suicide
    and less likely to suffer from hypertension,
    diabetes, ulcers, and some other diseases.
  • Drinking fewer than five cups a day keeps you
    safe from any increased risk of heart disease.

Caffeine And Disease
  • However, caffeine causes females to lose calcium
    and thus increases the risk of osteoporosis
    unless offset by ingestion of additional calcium.

Caffeine And Disease
  • Coffee has been implicated in several types of
    cancer, premature births, low birth weight
    babies, and heart disease.
  • However, further research suggests that coffee
    drinkers may have a greater tendency to engage in
    other behavior such as smoking that is the
    immediate cause of these problems.

Coffee and Socialability
  • It is the social aspect of coffee drinking
    perhaps connected to caffeines stimulation of
    the nervous system and brain that has made
    coffee the focus of so much activity and
    attention throughout its brief history.

  • We will review some of the history of coffee,
    coffeehouses, politics, and society shortly. But

What Is Coffee?
  • Coffee is the fruit of a woody shrub of the genus
    Coffea, in the family Rubiaceae.
  • The coffee bush can grow to a height of 32 feet,
    but is usually cut off at about 8 feet.
  • It grew originally in the tropical forests of

What Is Coffee?
  • Coffee requires a lot of sunshine, moderate
    rainfall, altitudes between sea level and 6,000
    feet, average temperatures between 60 and 70
    degrees Fahrenheit, and freedom from frost.
  • After the flowers pollinate, small cherries
    develop, each with two seeds, or coffee beans.

What Is Coffee?
  • After 7 to 11 months, the green cherries ripen,
    turning red.
  • One coffee bush can produce about 4,000 beans
    per year one pound of roasted coffee.

What Is Coffee?
  • There are more than 20 species of coffee, but
  • only two account for most of the worlds
    production and consumption.

What Is Coffee?
  • Coffea arabica, the original coffee, and
    considered by most people to have the better
  • About ¾ of the worlds coffee is arabica today.
  • Coffea canephora, known to most people as
  • Robusta has more caffeine, grows in hotter
    climates, and is more disease resistant.

What Is Coffee?
  • The coffee bean is a complex biological entity

What Is Coffee?
  • The beans are dried and roasted.
  • Much of this tedious and low paid work is done
    by women throughout the world as shown here by
    women in Zaire, Central Africa.

Origin of Coffee
  • Coffee comes to the world from Ethiopia a
    country of Eastern Africa.
  • It has the longest known history of any African
    nation except for Egypt.
  • Once known as Kush, (including part of modern
    day Sudan) Ethiopia or Sudan produced at least
    one of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt in the 8th
    Century BC.

  • The Queen of Sheba is thought by some to have
    been an Ethiopian monarch.
  • Modern Ethiopia is a complex nation with a
    population of 66.5 million people in 2003
    second only to Nigeria in Africa.
  • 85 languages are spoken within its borders in
    addition to Arabic and English that are widely
    used as connecting languages (lingua francas).

  • The Blue Nile, the main source of the Nile River
    of Egypt, originates in Lake Tana of Northwest
  • About 45 of Ethiopias people are Muslim, while
  • About 40 are Ethiopian Orthodox, also called
    Coptic Christians.

Coptic Christianity
  • Coptic Christians believe that their religion was
    founded by Saint Mark.
  • Coptic means Egyptian.
  • They follow their own Pope who resides in
    Alexandria Egypt.
  • The present Coptic Pope is Shenouda III.
  • Coptic Christians have their own version of the
    Bible and in Ethiopia they have their own written
    language in which their Bible is printed.

Coptic Christianity
  • Coptic Christianity is thought by scholars to be
    as old as 60 AD in Egypt and almost that old in
    Ethiopia. This hymn and prayer book with Arabic
    translations in the right hand column resides in
    The Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt.

Origin of Coffee
  • But neither Muslims nor Christians invented
  • Our word coffee probably comes from the
    Ethiopian Kaffa, a province of ancient
    Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where the Galla or Kafischo
    speaking people lived.
  • The map on the next slide shows where coffee was

  • Origin
  • of
  • Coffee
  • Kaffa Area
  • ?

Origin of Coffee
  • The Kaffa area is southwest of the modern
    capital of Addis Ababa
  • and just west of the Great Rift Valley, where
    the African continent is splitting apart in one
    of the worlds great geological processes.

  • Origin
  • of
  • Coffee
  • Kaffa Area ?
  • Great Rift Valley?

Origin of Coffee
  • Here, by or before 575 AD the Galla people began
    harvesting and eating the coffee beans for quick
  • Originally, the beans were crushed in with balls
    of animal fat to create a high protein energy bar
    for use on long treks.

Origin of Coffee
  • A modern Ethiopian recipe maintains the
    historical origin of coffee mix fire-roasted
    beans with salt, butter, onions, fenugreek, white
    cumin, basil, cardamom, oregano, and turmeric.
  • Nearby ethnic groups began brewing the beans
    with boiling water or fermenting them into a
    coffee wine.

Origin of Coffee
  • One local Ethiopian story has it that a shepherd
    named Kaldi, (hot in Arabic) noticed his
    goats behaving strangely after ingesting the red
  • The real discoverer of coffee may remain forever

The Muslim Connection
  • The spread of coffee out of the high plateau of
    southwestern Ethiopia was facilitated by traders
    and scholars of the Muslim world of the time of
    the European Middle Ages.

The Muslim Connection
  • By the 9th and 10th Centuries coffee had made
    its way to Mocha, a port on the Red Sea where it
    quickly became a popular drink.

  • ? Mocha

The Muslim Connection
  • This was the time of
  • Charlemagne
  • Alfred The Great
  • Discovery of Iceland
  • London Bridge
  • Classic Age of the Maya

The Muslim Connection
  • And in the Muslim World
  • Chwarazmi coins the word algebra
  • Adoption of Indian numbers, including zero
  • Perfection of the Astrolabe
  • Córdoba, Spain becomes Arabic scientific and
    medical center
  • Arabs bring the trumpet to European music

The Muslim Connection
  • Scholars now agree that coffee was spread
    initially in and around the Yemeni port of Mocha
    by members of the Sufi sect among Muslims. Not
    to be confused with the Sunnis, the majority
    tendency in Islam.

The Sufi Connection
  • Sufism is a mystical branch of Islam, oblivious
    to the outside world, searching for God through a
    spiritual merging. Sufism produced some of
    Islams greatest poetry.
  • Sufis hold dhikrs communal worship services at
    night where they attempt to induce a trancelike

The Sufi Connection
  • These trances are often induced by the rhythmic
    repetition of the name of God, or by the shahada,
    the Muslim profession of faith There is no God
    but God and Mohammed is his messenger often
    with group swaying of the bodies to produce a
    hypnotic effect.

The Sufi Connection
  • Muslims are forbidden to take alcohol the word
    alcohol is Arabic, but Sufi mystics found the
    stimulation from coffee to be theologically
    acceptable and gave it the name qahwa, from an
    Arabic word referring to wine. Some scholars
    believe this is the origin of the word coffee.

The Sufi Connection
  • By the 15th Century, Sufis were practicing their
    form of Islam throughout the Muslim world. They
    may have spread the practice of coffee drinking
    from the Yemeni Sufi community to Sufi
    communities throughout the Muslim world.

The Sufi Connection
  • From the Sufi trance sessions, coffee also began
    to spread into secular life in Yemen, being sold
    on the street and in special drinking spots
    called coffee houses.

  • A reaction set in from the authorities Men who
    frequented the coffee houses were accused of
    gambling, criminal activity, sexual adventures,
    and criticizing the rulers.

The Muslim Connection
  • In 1511, Khair-Beg, the governor of nearby
    Mecca, Islams holiest site, outlawed coffee and
    the coffee houses after hearing that the patrons
    were reciting satirical poems about him.

The Muslim Connection
  • Khair-Begs official physicians and theological
    advisors pronounced coffee a violation of the
    Islamic injunction against alcohol, even though
    coffee is not mentioned in The Koran, Islams
    holy text.

The Muslim Connection
  • They claimed that coffee induces the state of
    sukr, or intoxication, that the Koran does
  • Word shortly came from Cairo, where the most
    prestigious Islamic scholars of the time
    congregated and taught

  • at the Al-Ahzar Mosque and university, that
    coffee did not violate Islamic law.

The Muslim Connection
  • When the Ottoman Turks conquered Yemen in 1536,
    the stage was set for the further spread of
    coffee because it was primarily through the
    Ottoman Turkish empire that coffee drinking
    spread into Europe.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Prospero Alpini, an Italian doctor who visited
    Egypt in 1592 may have been the first to bring
    coffee to Europe.
  • Through Alpini

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • coffee made its way to
  • Venice in 1615
  • Lyons and Paris in 1644
  • London in 1650
  • Vienna in 1651
  • Sweden in 1675

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Europeans quickly moved to break free of
    Arab-Islamic control over the coffee trade.
  • The Dutch planted coffee shrubs in Sri Lanka
    (Ceylon) in 1658, and in Java from 1712 later
    producing so much coffee that the drink became
    known for many decades as a cup of Java.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • By 1722 the French were planting coffee on the
    Caribbean islands under their control.
  • When Napoleons troops drove the Portuguese king
    from Lisbon in 1807, British ships carried him to
    Brazil where he set up coffee plantations to pay
    for his expensive life style.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Like the Muslims before them, Europeans took to
    coffee with a craze but found themselves in a hot
    debate about its qualities.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Fear of the immoral consequences of coffee
    drinking led middle class fathers to forbid the
    drink to their daughters.
  • In 1732 this led Johann Sebastian Bach to write
    Cantata No. 211 the Coffee Cantata.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Sings daughter Lieschen to her father
  • If I dont have my three cups of coffee a day,
    Im like a dried up piece of roast goat.

Coffee Comes to Europe
  • Papa Schlendrian threatens her with every kind
    of restriction, but she wants her coffee. Only
    when he refuses to find her a husband does she
  • But Lieschen lets the word out around town she
    will wed only the man who assures her 3 cups of
    coffee per day.

With Coffee Came the Muslim Coffeehouse
  • Without the Muslims as shown in the previous
    slide of Lloyds Coffeehouse in 17th Century
    England, where
  • Gentlemen discussed the shipping news Lloyds
    was and is one of the biggest shipping insurance
    companies and put coins in a small brass can
    labeled To Insure Promptness later shortened
    to TIP.

Coffeehouses and Revolution
  • As in Muslim Yemen, Egypt, and Turkey, the
    coffeehouse in Europe became associated with
    anti-ruler political activities.
  • Conservatives tried to shut down coffeehouses,
    but with little success.

Coffeehouses and Revolution
  • From the Café Foy in 1789 Camille Desmoulins led
    the crowd that brought down the Bastille Louis
    XIVs hated prison

Coffeehouses and Revolution
  • On Dec 16, 1773 American colonists dressed as
    Mohawk Indians threw overboard 342 crates of
    British tea in Boston.

Coffeehouses and Revolution
  • The group, calling itself the Sons of Liberty,
    had planned the event in a nearby coffeehouse.

Coffee in America
  • But most 18th and early 19th century Americans
    including children drank cider or beer along
    with their corn, potatoes, and pork.

Coffee in America
  • During the war of 1812, when Britain defeated a
    U.S. attempt to annex Canada, Americans began
    drinking more and more coffee in a wave of
    enthusiasm for everything French.
  • But generally coffee in the mostly rural 19th
    Century U.S. got brewed and drunk at home.

Coffee in America
  • Home roasted American coffee was boiled in a pot
    with flavorings such as eggs, fish, and eel
  • The addition of sugar and milk was said to
    improve the flavor.

Coffee in America
  • During the Civil War, Union troops were supplied
    daily with one-tenth of a pound of green coffee
  • After the war in 1865, the giant coffee
    companies arose

Coffee in America
  • Arbuckles Ariosa Coffee (later called Yuban)
  • Chase and Sanborn
  • Folgers
  • Hills Brothers
  • Maxwell House
  • A and P
  • Jewel Tea

Coffee in America
  • Home roasting was replaced by giant roasting
    factories where men worked 10 hour days 6 days a
    week and were often burned or asphixiated.
  • Companies fought price and advertising wars
  • and battled anti-coffee products such as Postum.

  • In 1952 the Pan American Coffee Bureau invented
    the coffee break.

Caffeine At Work
  • The coffee break uses caffeine to mobilize body
    fat and make it available to the muscles. Workers
    feel rejuvenated because, in a chemical sense,
    they are.

  • And American industry found ever new ways to
    make coffee less social and worse tasting.

From Berkeley to Starbucks
  • The modern coffeehouse movement in America
    developed in the 1960s.
  • Dutch immigrant Alfred Peet opened Peets Coffee
    Tea in 1966 in Berkeley, California. Using high
    quality Arabica beans from Colombia, he soon had
    crowds lined around the block.

From Berkeley to Starbucks
  • As the Vietnam war escalated in the late 1960s,
    antiwar activists opened coffee houses on the
    outskirts of military bases.
  • Soldiers and veterans grew long hair and talked
    of atrocities and anger. The GI antiwar movement
    was a key element in the eventual US withdrawal.

From Berkeley to Starbucks
  • In 1971 Jerry Baldwin, Gordon Bowker, and Zev
    Siegl (left to right) founded Starbucks in

From Berkeley to Starbucks
  • As it grew in size, Starbucks was criticized for
    driving small local coffeehouses out of business.

Fair Trade Coffee
  • In 1987, Franz van der Hoff, a Dutch priest
    working with a coffee cooperative in Oaxaca,
    Mexico, set up a trading arrangement with
    Solidaridad, a Dutch support group in The
    Netherlands. Small importers who were battling
    Douwe Egberts, the Dutch mega-coffee company,
    offered to help market the coffee.

Fair Trade Coffee
  • The Dutch radicals named their certifying agency
    the Max Havelaar Quality Mark, after the title
    of the most famous novel in Dutch literature.

Fair Trade Coffee
  • Published in 1860, the book set off a storm of
    protest and self-reflection in colonial Holland,
    for its denunciation of the mistreatment of the
    Javanese colonial subjects mistreatment

Fair Trade Coffee
  • in the name of coffee. The fictional hero, Max
    Havelaar, is a colonial official who finds the
    system of oppression too much in conflict with
    his morals. The book shifts back and forth
    between an Amsterdam coffee merchant interested
    only in profits and the lush Javanese countryside
    where Havelaar battles injustice

Fair Trade Coffee
  • The novels beautiful language earned the author
    the title The Dutch Shakespeare, and the
    structure is said to have influenced Joseph
    Conrads Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness both of
    which utilize a version of it. D. H. Lawrence is
    also said to have been an admirer of the author,
    Eduard Douwes Dekker, who took the pen name
    Multituli, Latin for I have suffered much.

Fair Trade Coffee
  • Not
  • Just a
  • Cup,
  • but a
  • Just
  • Cup
  • During the same period, American Paul Katzeff
    was setting up Coffee for Peace, and selling
    Nicaraguan coffee in the USA.

Fair Trade Coffee
  • By the 1990s the Max Havelaar certifying agency
    and the US Fair Trade movement had merged efforts
    to produce an international marketing network
    with three main goals

Fair Trade Coffee
  • Fair prices to the coffee producers and laborers
    remember slide 13 where only 13 cents on the
    dollar goes to the producers.
  • Organic or pesticide free coffee.
  • Shade grown coffee that leaves the major trees
    for bird habitats and climate and environmental

Fair Trade Coffee Criteria
  • Fairtrade labelling has established the following
    general criteria for its products
  • a price that covers the cost of production
  • social premium for development purposesand

Fair Trade Coffee Criteria
  • partial payment in advance to avoid small
    producer organizations falling into debt
  • long term trade relations that allow proper
    planning and sustainable production practices
  • contracts that allow long term production planning

Fair Trade Production Conditions
  • Fair production conditions include
  • for small farmers co-operatives a democratic,
    participative structure
  • for plantations and factories the workers should
  • decent wages (at least the legal minimum)
  • good housing, where appropriate
  • minimum health and safety standards
  • the right to join trade unions
  • no child or forced labor
  • minimum environmental requirements

Fair Trade Coffee
  • So who sells fair trade coffee?
  • Starbucks
  • and
  • Global Exchange http//

Fair Trade Coffee
  • Starbucks and other retail outlets do not tend
    to feature fair trade coffee. You have to look
    for it and ask for it
  • and it does cost 10 to 20 more.

Fair Trade Coffee Pricing
  • Fair trade coffee is priced to the producers at
    5 cents per pound above the New York or London
    market prices for regular coffee and 15 cents
    higher than that for certified organic coffee.

Fair Trade Coffee Pricing
  • In addition, minimum prices come into effect for
    fair trade coffee but NOT for other coffee
    when the market prices drop below certain levels.
    For example, washed arabica cannot go below 1.26
    per pound while certified organic cannot fall
    below 1.410

Fair Trade Coffee 2013 Update
  • A New York Times feature article in the
    Business Section for 17 March 2013 describes a
    new development in Fair Trade Coffee some
    producers are able to process the coffee and sell
    at the higher finished price of 7.25 or even
  • This higher price comes with various
    difficulties such as the problem of small
    producers being able to guarantee the flavor.
  • To read the NYTimes article, click here.

Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee
  • Coffee prices to the producers are at their
    lowest level in 100 years, and are only ¼ of what
    they were in 1960.
  • In many areas producers are losing so much money
    they cannot afford to keep their children in
    school, cannot afford health care, or are about
    to lose their land.
  • Some farmers are switching to drug production out
    of desperation.

Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee
  • Meanwhile corporate profits in coffee are on the
  • Sara Lees beverage profits mostly from coffee
    were up 17 in 2002.
  • Nestlé now makes 26 cents on the dollar for its
    instant coffee in England.

Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee
  • The price protections alone for fair trade
    coffee are thus becoming a life and death matter
    for millions in the Third World who produce the

Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee
  • Fair trade coffee protects
  • Producers
  • Consumers
  • The environment
  • and

Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee
  • it is part of a larger question sometimes
    forgotten in the individualistic, competitive
    world of modern capitalism
  • What is the economy for?

  • profits or people?

  • Do we want to live in a fortress America,
    privileged over and isolated from millions of
    frustrated poor people whom we try to keep under
    control with our vast military machine?
  • Or

  • do we want to live in a world of solidarity and
    cooperation where ethics and concern for others
    play roles in our consumption decisions?

  • Have a cup of coffee and think it over.

Montclair State University Department of
AnthropologyAnth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western WorldProfessor Emeritus Richard
W. Franke
  • United Students for Fair Trade
  • http//
  • Transfair USA
  • http//
  • Fair Trade Federation
  • http//
  • Global Exchange
  • http//

Montclair State University Department of
AnthropologyAnth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western WorldProfessor Emeritus Richard
W. Franke
  • 2013 Update Fair Trade Sugar
  • If you put sugar in your coffee, you might want
    to know that much sugar has been heavily sprayed
    with pesticides and/or herbicides and most used
    in the US today is also GMO (genetically
  • Fair Trade Sugar, however, is mostly free of
    sprayed chemicals and is non-GMO. For more info
    on this, including info on how to find fair trade
    sugar locally, click on the link below
  • http//

Montclair State University Department of
AnthropologyAnth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western WorldProfessor Emeritus Richard
W. Franke
  • End of slides for Week 12
  • Coffee An Afro-Arab Contribution and
  • Fair Trade Coffee