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DISASTER MANAGEMENT

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Title: DISASTER MANAGEMENT


1
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE

Afolabi Olusegun MBChB, MPH, FMCPH
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH,
OAU, Ile-Ife
2
Introduction
  • Disasters have been part of the human experience
    from time in memorial.
  • Almost all human community have legends and
    stories of various forms of destructive
    occurrence as floods famine disease epidemic,
    earthquakes and other types of disasters.

3
Introduction cont
  • Historical and religious writing also record
    destructions caused by disasters, for example in
    the Bible Noah's ark, fires in Sodom and
    Gomorrah, famine in Egypt in days of Joseph.
  • These however depicts mankind as a helpless
    victim of these disasters. Despite various
    disasters ,mankind has survived. Advances in
    science and technology, notably information and
    communication technology, has further
    strengthened the notion that man is not
    completely at the mercy of disaster.

4
What is a disaster
  • A disaster is a catastrophic situation in which
    the days to day pattern of life are in many
    instances suddenly disrupted and as a result
    people need protection ,water food shelter
    medical and social care and other necessities of
    life. IFRCCS

5
What is a disaster
  • A disaster is a crisis resulting in the failure
    in human interaction with the physical or social
    environment. HENRY DUNAT INSTITUTE,
    GENEVA,SWITZERLAND.
  • A disaster is a serious disruption of the
    functioning of the society, causing wide spread
    human and environmental losses which exceeds the
    ability of the affected communities to cope using
    its own resources. Oxford center for disaster
    studies

6
  • A sudden occurrence/ event that causes damage to
    properties, ecological disruption, loss of human
    life, deterioration of health and health services
    on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary
    response from outside the affected community or
    area. (WHO)

7
  • Practically speaking ,disasters can be regarded
    as the effect of the interaction between a hazard
    and vulnerability.

8
  • Hazard A natural or man made event that
    threatens to adversely affect human life,
    property or activities e.g. drought, epidemic,
    floods
  • Vulnerability The inherent tendency to suffer
    damage due to external events e.g. rapid
    population growth, urban squatters , precarious
    food security ,environmental degradation,
    refugees and displaced person

9
  • Characteristics of a disaster
  • A disaster is an event
  • Affects human beings i.e. life, properties,
    infrastructure .environment
  • It makes affected communities unable to cope with
    day to day life .
  • It creates a need for external assistance
  • It has a causative agent HAZARD
  • It often happens suddenly no warning

10
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS
11
Classification of disasters cont
  • Natural (sudden onset) Earthquakes, Volcanic
    eruption, hurricanes, typhoon ,tropical storm,
    land slides ,bushfire
  • Natural and Man-made (sudden onset ) fire,
    landslides
  • Natural (slow onset) Draught and desertification,
    famine, floods, epidemics cholera, CSM, etc

12
  • Manmade (sudden) Toxic waste, fire ,wars, oil
    spillages, mass transport accidents e.g air
    crashes, technological and industrial accidents
  • Man made (slow onset) war, terrorism ,civil
    strife, environmental pollution and economic
    crisis,

13
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14
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15
RECENT DISASTERS
  • LAGOS BOMB BLAST
  • PETROL EXPLOSIONS
  • ETHNIC CRISIS KADUNA /JOS
  • GAS FLARING
  • OILSPILLAGES
  • HURRICANE KATRINA
  • EARTHQUAKE IN PERU
  • WAR IN IRAQ
  • RWANDA

16
Effects of Disasters
  • Disasters result in loss of lives
  • In availability and inadequate utilization of
    healthcare facilities as a result of
    concentration of energy and resources to relief
    and rehabilitation, thereby disrupting common
    referral systems.
  • Regression in the socioeconomic and developmental
    advances thereby resulting in abject poverty.
  • Morbidity from various degrees of injuries
    ,fractures, burns ,etc.

17
Most common effects on environmental health Most common effects on environmental health Earthquake Cyclone Flood Tsunami Volcano
Water supply and wastewater disposal Damage to civil engineering structures 1 1 1 3 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Broken mains 1 2 2 1 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Damage to water sources 1 2 2 3 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Power outages 1 1 2 2 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Contamination (Biological or chemical) 2 1 1 1 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Transportation failures 1 1 1 2 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Personnel shortages 1 2 2 3 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal System overload(due to population shifts) 3 1 1 3 1
Water supply and wastewater disposal Equipments, parts, and supply shortages 1 1 1 2 1
Solid waste handling Damage to civil engineering structures 1 2 2 3 1
Solid waste handling Transportation failures 1 1 1 2 1
Solid waste handling Equipment shortages 1 1 1 2 1
Solid waste handling Personnel shortages 1 1 1 3 1
Solid waste handling Water, soil, and air pollution 1 1 1 2 1
18
  • Source Pan American Health Organization (2000)
  • Severe 2- Less severe 3- Least or no
    possible effect

Food handling Spoilage of refrigerated foods 1 1 2 2 1
Food handling Damage to food preparation facilities 1 1 2 3 1
Food handling Transportation failures 1 1 1 2 1
Food handling Power outages 1 1 1 3 1
Food handling Flooding of facilities 3 1 1 1 3
Food handling Contamination/degradation of relief supplies 2 1 1 2 1
Vector control Proliferation of vector breeding sites 1 1 1 1 3
Vector control Increase in human /vector contacts 1 1 1 2 1
Vector control Disruption of vector-borne disease control programmes 1 1 1 1 1
Home sanitation Destruction or damage to structures 1 1 1 1 1
Home sanitation Contamination of water and food 2 2 1 2 1
Home sanitation Disruption of power, heating fuel, water supply or waste disposal services 1 1 1 2 1
Home sanitation Overcrowding 3 3 3 3 2
19
Effects of Disasters cont
  • Risk of communicable diseases due to lack of
    water, poor environmental sanitation and
    overcrowding.
  • Epidemics, food and water borne diseases e.g
    typhoid and cholera
  • Vector borne diseases such as plague and malaria
  • Diseases spread from person to person, such as
    hepatitis and shigellosis
  • It is worthy of note that the major causes of
    death among refugees are malnutrition, measles
    ,diarrhea, pneumonia and locally endemic diseases

20
Disaster Management
  • The body of policies, administrative decisions
    and operational activities which pertain to
    various stages of the disaster.
  • Essentially, intersectoral the contribution of
    all sectors are crucial for its total success. It
    involves all aspects of planning for and
    responding to disasters.

21
Aspects of disasters management
  • Disaster preparedness
  • Disaster response and
  • Disaster mitigation

22
DISASTER CYCLE
DISASTER
RESPONSE
PREPAREDNESS
REHABILITATION
MITIGATION
RECONSTRUCTION
23
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT.
  • Reduction or total avoidance of potential losses
    from hazards .
  • Assurance of prompt and appropriate assistance to
    victims when necessary
  • Achievement of a rapid and durable recovery

24
General options
  • Reduced hazard to the barest minimum
  • Reduced man vulnerability
  • Combination of the two above

25
Disaster preparedness
  • When a disaster occurs it affects every sphere of
    life. They cannot be avoided or even easily
    reduced hence the need to prepare adequately for
    such eventualities cannot be overemphasized.

26
Disaster preparedness
  • Disaster preparedness entails taking measures
    that ensure the organized mobilization of
    personnel, funds equipment and supplies with a
    safe environment for an effective relief.
  • In other words, it is the readiness to cope with
    disaster through deliberate efforts to predict
    detect and warn potential victims to take
    precaution .

27
AIM OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
  • Aim is to minimize the adverse effect of a hazard
    through the effective precautionary actions and
    to ensure timely appropriate and efficient
    organization and delivery of relief.

28
Focus for disaster preparedness
  • Manpower resources -Community education and
    training for action during the emergency and
    relief phase.
  • Material resources-mobilization of needed
    supplies and other material, identification of
    sources of certain supplies for use during the
    emergency phase

29
  • Funds are set aside for easy mobilization for use
    in event of it being required to facilitate
    relief
  • Management of the environment policy guide line
    s and administrative procedure designed to
    accommodate a management option for effective
    implementation of preparedness plans before
    during and after a disaster.

30
Framework for disaster preparedness programs
  • Planning -Preparedness should clearly state
    objectives with rules and responsibilities also
    clearly spelt out. These should be an integrated
    plan involving key sector of the economy and
    community
  • Vulnerability assessment- This is to determine
    what impact should be expected with certain
    hazards and what could be done about them.

31
Framework cont
  • Information system a viable information system
    which ensures feedback should be aimed at
  • Resource base preparedness programs should
    identify resources for use and from where they
    could be obtained for preparedness and response
    phase of disasters

32
Framework cont
  • Early warning system a valid reliable and
    functional warning system though not applicable
    to all disasters
  • Public information education and training the
    ultimate purpose is to ensure that affected
    communities can play their expected role in wake
    of disaster
  • Rehearsals and drills -serve the purpose
    sharpening skill and testing system
  • Response mechanisms-i.e. activates that portion
    of the preparedness plan which deals with relief
    after impact

33
DISASTER RESPONSE
  • During the responses phase, activities are
    implemented after the impact of the disaster
  • Assessment of needs
  • Reduction of suffering
  • Limiting the spread and consequences of
    disaster
  • Opening the way for rehabilitation.

34
ACTIVITIES IN DISASTER RESPONSE
  • Warning
  • Evacuation
  • Search and rescue
  • Assessment of needs
  • Emergency relief Health, food, shelter and
    social welfare services, water, clothing.
  • Logistics and supplies

35
ACTIVITIES Contd.
  • Communication and information management
  • Survivor response and coping
  • Security
  • Emergency management and co-ordination
  • Expeditions of rehabilitation and reconstruction
  • Support activities

36
Priorities in early phase of emergency
  • Assess the situation
  • Water, sanitation, environmental hygiene and
    shelter Food and Nutrition
  • Shelter and site planning
  • Health Education
  • Surveillance and control of communicable diseases
    and epidemics

37
Issues Limiting Prompt response to Disasters
  • Poor telecommunications, poor surveillance
    delay in reporting
  • Poor electricity supply.
  • Limited capacity to detect problems early due to
    lack of training of health personnel on syndromic
    recognition of frequently occurring epidemics
    such as cholera and CSM.
  • Transportation (lack of adequate )

38
  • Denial (of disease outbreak/epidemic) because of
    stigma
  • No skilled manpower
  • Lack of stationery
  • Lack of regular up-to-date data from the disease
    notification exercise.
  • Lack of sufficient information about the affected
    populations to make emergency response planning
    effective and the response and relief is often
    inexact

39
  • .
  • The fatalistic attitude that God determines
    outcomes
  • Lack of political will/commitment
  • Attitude
  • Nigerias national capacity to respond to
    disasters is still quite limited
  • Few localities have functioning fire departments,
    ambulances, referral health care facilities or
    emergency stocks.

40
Response to Epidemics
  • Epidemics
  • An epidemic is an infectious or parasitic disease
    occurrence or a number of case of a disease,
    known or suspected to be of parasitic or
    infectious origin, that is unusually large or
    unexpected for the region for the given place and
    time.
  • An epidemic often evolves rapidly so that a quick
    response is required.

41
  • Epidemic diseases in Nigeria
  • Cholera
  • Meningitis
  • Yellow Fever
  • Lassa fever
  • Measles

42
General measures for control of epidemics
  • Early diagnosis and treatment
  • Information, education and communication
  • Personal hygiene
  • Vaccination if indicated
  • Environmental
  • Reservoir host control

43
MITIGATION
  • This refers to actions taken to reduce both human
    suffering and property loss resulting from
    natural phenomenon
  • Reduction of risk, hazardous events,
    vulnerabilities

44
TECHNIQUES OF MITIGATION
  • ENGINEERING Stronger structures more resistant
    to hazards
  • SPATIAL PLANNING Avoid using hazardous places
    for settlement
  • ECONOMIC development
  • MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION of disaster
    mitigation
  • SOCIETAL Safety culture awareness of hazard,
    self protection.
  • CONFLICT REDUCTION Identify root causes
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