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PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS

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Title: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS


1
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS THEORIES OF EDUCATION
2
Philosophy ? ? set of ideas about
  • The nature of reality
  • The meaning of life
  • Describe your current personal philosophy of
    education

3
THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION
  • What do you think the purpose of education is?
  • To give knowledge
  • To transmit culture
  • To help people adapt to society
  • To give religious education
  • To provide practical/hands-on experience/training
  • To provide learner/human-centered education
    (self-realization)
  • etc (your view)
  • Why do some parents choose or reject certain
    schools?
  • Philosophy influences daily educational life in
    many ways
    (curriculum, teacher role, assessment, teaching
    methods..)

4
FOUR PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES
  • IDEALISM ( Plato) GENERIC NOTIONS
  • Reality is an unchanging world of perfect ideas
    and universal truths (metaphysics)
  • Reality is made up of absolute truths. (religious
    education programs)
  • To Plato, truth is perfect and eternal and not
    found in the world matter.
  • Meaning is in the ideals of life itself.
  • We cant rely on our senses as they deceive us.
  • (Criticism) a truth sometimes is only in the
    eye of the beholder.

5
  • Knowledge is obtained when ideas are brought into
    consciousness through self-examination and
    discourse (epistemology)
  • Searching for truth through Socratic questioning/
    dialectic questioning individuals point of
    view (using inductive reasoning, authority
    lecturing)
  • Wisdom of goodness discipline, order,
    self-control preservation of cultural heritage
    of the past (Axiology)

6
Goal of Education
  • Educators are interested in the search for truth
    through ideas rather than through the examination
    of the false shadowy world of matter.
  • They encourage students to search for truth as
    individuals.
  • Education is transformation ideas can change
    lives.

7
Role of Teacher
  • Dealing with abstract notions through dialectic
    method connecting analysis with action
  • Active, posing questions, selecting materials and
    establishing an environment to ensure the desired
    outcomes.
  • A role model to be imitated by ss

8
Methods of Instruction
  • T ? active in ss learning
  • Lecturing but particularly using dialectic
    approach
  • Through questioning, ss ? encouraged to discuss,
    analyze, synthesize, and apply what whey have
    read
  • Ss ? encouraged to work in groups/ individually
    on research projects, both oral and written

9
Curriculum
  • Examining the roots of the contemporary problems
    in the past (great literature/classics etc)
  • Education at any level should teach ss to think
  • Subject-matter curriculum
  • Back-to-basics approach in education

10
REALISM (Chisholm, Whitehead)
  • Generic Notions
  • Meaning comes through empirically proven facts.
  • Reality is made up of natural laws, facts.
  • The idea that reality is what it is and possesses
    an independent identity, regardless of the
    beliefs of the observer.
  • We perceive the actually existing physical world.

11
  • Goal of Education
  • Develop intellectual abilities
  • To equip ss with information to understand
    current event (Tabula Rasa)
  • Role of the Teacher
  • having a solid grounding in science, maths, and
    the humanities.
  • relying on test scores to place students
    (competency testing of students with various
    methods)
  • readily adopting new technology
  • teachers responsibility ?to teach
    skilldisciplined knowledge

12
  • T should be competent in a specific subject
    matter
  • T ?presenting ideas in a clear consistent
    manner demonstrating that there are definite
    ways to judge works of art, music, poetry and
    literature
  • Enabling ss to learn objective methods of
    evaluating the works above

13
  • Methods of Instruction
  • lecture, question answer (formal ways of
    teaching
  • inductive scientific reasoning
  • competency-based assessments as a way ensuring
    that ss learnt what they are being taught
  • emphasis on critical reason aided by observation
    (our experiences) experimentation
  • emphasizing realistic novels such as Oliver
    Twist, Great Expectations, For Whom the Bell
    Tolls etc. to give lives laws and principles and
    such novels are the keys for ss to reach the
    ideal world through material world
  • stressing precision and accuracy in math,
    science, social studies and writing

14
  • Curriculum
  • curriculum consists of the basics maths,
    science, reading etc.
  • attention is given to didactic object studies
    in education (use of pictures, TV, videos in
    educational process)
  • use of objects in education (Montessori)
  • emphasis is on subject matter (highly organized
    systematic in approach)
  • CRITICISM Empirical facts always subject to
    change.

15
EXISTENTIALISM (Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre,
Nietzche)
  • Generic Notions
  • Existentialists believe that individuals are
    placed on this earth alone must make sense out
    of the chaos they encounter.
  • Sartre ? believed existence precedes essence
    that is people must create themselves, and they
    must create their own meaning.
  • Thus, individuals are in a state of constantly
    becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good
    and evil. The choice is up to the individual.
  • In short, existentialism teaches that each person
    must simply live his/her life by doing so
    creates his/her own values, almost as an
    afterthought.
  • Reality for individuals is eternal. Each
    individuals point of view is significant. Aim is
    not to provide standard people.

16
  • Goal of Education
  • Existentialists
  • believe that education should focus on the needs
    of individuals, both cognitively and affectively.
  • also believe that education should stress
    individuality. (Education should include
    discussion of the nonrational and rational world)
  • Education is an activity liberating the
    individual from a chaotic, absurd world.
  • Individuals are responsible of consequences.
    Individuals should be given credit for the
    creation of concepts like peace, truth, and
    justice. So, focus is on humans and their ideas.

17
  • Good education would encourage individuals to ask
    such questions Who am I?, Where am I going?,
    Why am I here?
  • ?So, good education is one that
  • emphasizes individuality through intellectual
    journeys so that we can see and understand
    ourselves.
  • helps individuals to examine the
    abnormal/corrupted side of life, the irrational
    as well as the good side. (life/death, wars,
    peace )
  • ?AIM to make the world better

18
Role of the Teacher
  • emphasizes individual choices (there is no common
    way of viewing world)
  • T should understand his/her own lived world to
    help ss achieve their best lived worlds.
  • Both T and ss learn from each other their
    relation is more friend to friend
  • Ts must take risks expose themselves to
    resistant ss work constantly to enable their
    students to become wide awake.

19
  • Introspection is useful in order to enable ss to
    become in touch with their worlds and to empower
    them to choose and act on their choices.
  • Thus the role of teacher is an intensely personal
    one that carries with it a tremendous
    responsibility.
  • Due to the greater experience knowledge, it is
    the Ts responsibility to develop an educational
    environment that promotes awareness of the past
    and present, and of the future possibilities.

20
  • T helps ss become sensitive to human possibility
    and understand that they themselves are both
    necessarily and fully determined by the past
    (every present is conditioned by the past, but
    every present is pregnant with future
    possibilities for change and new direction
    individuals can change future.
  • Therefore, T should understand that the chief
    requirement is too help ss explore the world and
    open up new possibilities of the world for ss

21
Methods of Instruction
  • stressing individual freedom
  • empowering ss to make choices about what and how
    they will learn
  • Buber I-thou approach ST learn cooperatively
    from each other in an nontraditional,
    nonthreatening friendship. (posing questions,
    generating activities, and working together)
  • Educational methods which help T in rediscovering
    the excitement of learning and opening up a whole
    new world of possibilities for ss.
  • Ss become more articulate and capable of
    comprehension and self-expression with the help
    of teachers existentialist approach.

22
Curriculum
  • stressing arts an literature, little emphasis is
    given on maths an science
  • the humanities are considered in an
    existentialist curriculum because they deal with
    the essential aspects of human existence, such as
    the relations between people, the tragic side of
    human life as well as the happy, the absurdities
    as well as the meaning
  • Through humanities, the existentialists try to
    awaken modern individuals to the dangers of being
    swallowed up by the megalopolis and runaway
    technology (wide awaken)

23
  • Existentialists do not have definite rules about
    what the curriculum should comprise. They believe
    that the S-in-situation making a choice should be
    the deciding factor. (Curriculum from the
    standpoint of the learner rather than as a
    collection of discrete subjects)

24
PRAGMATISM (Dewey and James)
  • Generic Notions
  • Pragmatism is the philosophy that encourages
    people to find processes that work in order to
    achieve their desired ends.
  • Reality is that everything changes. (Theme the
    world is constantly changing and we have to
    adapt)
  • They study the past but they are generally more
    interested in contemporary issues and in
    discovering solutions to problems in present-day
    terms
  • They are action-oriented, experientially
    grounded, and will generally pose questions such
    as

25
  • What will work to achieve my desired ends?
  • problem ?speculative thought ?action ?results
  • ? then Question Do the results achieved solve
    the
  • problem? ? Then solution is valid.

26
Goal of Education
  • Primary goal of education is growth.
  • Education is for life.
  • Teaching ss how to live (standing on their feet)
  • Education should not be locked upon merely as
    schooling and the acquisition of academic subject
    matter but as a part of life itself.
  • Schools should balance the needs of the society
    and community on the one hand and the needs of
    the ss on the other.

27
  • To integrate children into not just any type of
    society, but a democratic one where cooperation
    and community are desired ends.
  • Helping people direct, control and guide personal
    and social experience (self-actualization)

28
  • Schools should foster habits of thought,
    invention and initiative that will assist people
    in growing right direction toward democratic
    society
  • Education should promote our true individualism
    (self-directed learning)
  • Education has a moral influence and should pay a
    vital part in helping us become the kind of moral
    persons who are interested not only in promoting
    our own growth but also in promoting the growth
    of others.

29
Role of the Teacher
  • applies democratic methods
  • classroom is a community of learners
  • T ? facilitator not authoritarian
  • T ?encourages, offers suggestions, questions and
    helps plan and implements courses of study
  • T ? writes curriculum and must have a command of
    several disciplines to create and implement
    curriculum

30
Methods of Instruction
  • Problem solving, experiential learning, inquiry
    methods, field trips, projects (not all ss can
    learn in the same way vary strategies)
  • Learning in groups and individuality
  • Formal instruction is abandoned (flexible methods
    are used) moveable chairs, freedom n class etc.
  • Lockstep, rote memorization of traditional
    schools are replaced with individualized studies.
  • Action-oriented education (activity-oriented
    approach to curriculum)

31
Curriculum
  • Learner-centered curriculum
  • Pragmatist curriculum is composed of both process
    (experience) and content (knowledge)
  • All academic and vocational disciplines in an
    integrated and connected way

32
  • Problem-centered learning/project method such
    approaches to curriculum start with a central
    question, core/problem. Ss attack the problem in
    diverse ways according to interest and need. They
    work independently or in groups. They evaluate
    their growth and development.
  • Child interest to be considered in curriculum.
    Varied needs, interests ?different curricula

33
ECLECTICISM
  • There is a way of dealing with all various models
  • Eclecticism is not a philosophical system or
    model, but rather is the synthesizing and
    personal interpretation of various models to draw
    out the best components for yourself
  • Thus, you pull the best from various models in
    any effort to build your own statement of
    personal philosophy.

34
  • Humanistic School
  • show respect to ss
  • consideration of ss needs, expectations,
    feelings, values
  • accepting ss as they are
  • active learning strategies
  • conflict resolution
  • incorporating whole class
  • Meaning Intellect distinguishes humans from
    animals
  • What is Reality Humans have potential and innate
    goodness
  • Nature of Humanness Autonomy, dignity, and
    freedom are sacred

35
  • Educational Aim Individual potentiality
    self-actualization
  • Educational Method Facilitation self-direction
    team work
  • Educational Content Any curriculum is a vehicle
    for meeting needs
  • Main Criticism Important societal goals can be
    missed
  • Key proponents Maslow, Knowles, Elias/Merriam,
    Tough

36
  • Programs/Practices
  • Individualized instructional process
  • learning projects
  • sensitivity training
  • teacher effective training
  • active listening
  • conflict resolution
  • invitational learning
  • values clarification
  • moral education
  • multiethnic educational approaches

37
  • Humanistic Approaches to English Language
    Teaching
  • Active Listening
  • letting ss to express her/his feelings then
    paraphrasing what s/he has said
  • No advice is given during active listening
  • Conflict Resolution
  • the involved people talk how problems emerge and
    how they can get rid of those problems/negative
    attitudes
  • problem solving meaningful learning strategies
    are used

38
  • Invitational Learning
  • communicating with the student by making her/him
    feel that s/he is responsible, able and
    valuable
  • procedure
  • know your ss name
  • have individual contact with each student
  • show him you respect her/him
  • be honest with her/him
  • not take rejection by the ss personality
  • respect her/him as a human being

39
  • Values Clarification
  • technique that clients
  • identify how they feel or what they believe about
    something
  • value that feeling or belief and,
  • if valued, act on it
  • aim to raise ss consciousness and values and
    help them to act on it.
  • Ex Do you think using drugs should be banned?
  • What can you do?

40
  • Moral Education
  • related to character education citizenship
    education
  • aim to help clients to develop more responsible
    behaviour
  • Strategies
  • serving as role models who are always respectful
    and caring to others
  • creating a family or community atmosphere so that
    clients feel worthwhile and care about people
  • encouraging students to hold high academic
    behavioral standards

41
THE PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS
  • How can we solve the worlds problems?
  • revolutions
  • wars
  • education

42
  • Education School
  • -Broad - Specific
  • -Take place anywhere, -particular location
  • anytime, anyplace
    -limited definition
  • - behaviour change processes -place for
    education

  • collective body of pupils
  • -lack of formalization -formalized
  • -no assessment processes - assessment
  • -non-official -official
  • -lack of system -systemic
  • -no need to certified person -certified
    person
  • -no specific time limit for
    learning -compulsory period
  • for attendance
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