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Early childhood intervention as a first step towards social inclusion and inclusive education

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Title: Early childhood intervention as a first step towards social inclusion and inclusive education


1
Early childhood intervention as a first step
towards inclusive education
Elena Kozhevnikova St. Petersburg Early
Intervention Institute, Russian Federation
2
CRC, GENERAL COMMENT No. 7 (2005) Implementing
child rights in early childhood
  • Young children should be recognized as active
    members of families, communities and societies,
    with their own concerns, interests and points of
    view.
  • Children with disabilities (art. 23). Young
    children should never be institutionalized solely
    on the grounds of disability. It is a priority to
    ensure that they have equal opportunities to
    participate fully in education and community
    life Young disabled children are entitled to
    appropriate specialist assistance, including
    support for their parents Disabled children
    should at all times be treated with dignity and
    in ways that encourage their self-reliance.

3
Early childhood intervention scientific
background
  • Early experience and brain development, sensitive
    periods, brain plasticity
  • Early relationships, attachment theory
  • Interaction and communication (communication vs.
    conditioning)
  • Early cognitive development scientist in the
    crib
  • Infant as a self-actor vs. passive object of care

4
Examples
  • Sensitive periods infants with hearing loss
  • Brain plasticity infants with brain damage
  • Early relationships infants in infant homes
    (damage of early institutionalization)

5
Goals of early childhood intervention
  • General for the world
  • to normalize life of the child and family
  • to help parents to create optimal environment for
    infant/young child development and education
  • Specific for Russia
  • to prevent infant and young children
    institutionalization

6
Main parts of early childhood intervention
program
  • Interdisciplinary teamwork with families and
    children
  • Psychological support to families
  • Information and legal support to families
  • Social inclusion of families and children
  • Transition to preschools
  • Support to inclusive preschool education
  • Transition to school

7
Programs of socialization and inclusion
8
(No Transcript)
9
Benefits of early childhood intervention for
  • Infants and young children with disabilities
  • Parents and families of young children with
    disabilities
  • Typically developing young children
  • Parents of typically developing young children
  • Teachers and staff of mainstream preschools
  • Child neurologists and pediatricians
  • State and regional budgets
  • Society in general

10
Differences in
  • ECI approach
  • To normalize life of the child and the family
  • Family centered
  • Parents as partners
  • Child as an individuality
  • Program is based on strong sides of the child and
    family
  • Defectological approach
  • To cure or correct defects and normalize child
  • Child focused
  • Parents as obstacles or patients
  • Child as a category /type of defect
  • Program is based on weak sides of the child

11
Challenges in moving from defectological to ECI
approach
  • Strong tradition of medical model of
    disability, belief that medical diagnosis
    completely predict development
  • Tradition to divide children into educable and
    uneducable, into high and low level
    rehabilitative potential groups
  • Belief that only professionals can help children,
    lack of respect and trust in families abilities
  • Narrow specialization of rehabilitative and
    correctional educational services according child
    diagnosis
  • Lack of knowledge in early childhood development
    and education, in PT, OT, AAC methods

12
Maternity Hospitals (screenings)
Specialized Medical Centers Medical-Genetic Audio
logy Ophtalmology
Mainstream Preschools (screenings)
Children Hospitals (NICU, etc.)
Early childhood Intervention (NGO, Health care,
Education, Social care)
Special Preschools
p
p
Children Polyclinics (screenings)
Rehabilitation Centers
Social Centers
13
ECI ---- preschools ---- schools Experiences of
Minsk, Belarus
  • M.,10 years old girl with Down syndrome, studies
    at 3d grade of mainstream school, one of the best
    between classmates in Russian language, from 1 to
    3 years old was in ECI, from 3 to 7 in
    inclusive preschool.
  • E. and D., 8 years old prematurely born
    twin-sisters starting school this autumn. E. is
    visually and hearing impaired (got cochlea
    implant) with mild motor problems. D. has CP,
    seizures, and visual impairment. Both move
    independently, talk, read, write, count. First
    months of life spent in hospital, since 10 months
    in ECI, from 4,5 years in preschool.

14
How to find common language between
  • Family with the child with disability
  • Medical-social expertise
  • Pedagogical-Medical-Psychological Commission
  • Early childhood intervention
  • Mainstream preschools and schools
  • Special education
  • Health care
  • Social care
  • Local community
  • May be through ICF-CY ?

15
EII as a knowledge center in early childhood
intervention
  • Support to regional and municipal authorities in
    developing ECI programs
  • Education of interdisciplinary ECI teams
  • Education in Physical therapy, Occupational
    therapy, early communication, Alternative and
    Augmentative Communication, early childhood
    special education, infant mental health,
    assessment methods (infants and young children
    development, vision, hearing), family work,
    inclusive preschool education etc.
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