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Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air

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Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air ... Charles Law, and the Ideal Gas Law. Never heard of them? Don t worry that s the purpose of this lesson! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air


1
Gas Laws Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air
  • A Chemistry lesson for 10th Grade Students
    created by Warren Merkel

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2
Introduction
  • Welcome!
  • This interactive lesson will introduce three ways
    of predicting the behavior of gases Boyles Law,
    Charles Law, and the Ideal Gas Law. Never heard
    of them? Dont worry thats the purpose of this
    lesson!

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3
Navigation
  • Throughout this lesson, you will use buttons at
    the bottom right corner of the page to navigate.

Takes you to the next page
Takes you to the previous page
Takes you to the Main Menu
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4
Main Menu
Basic Terminology
Lesson 1
Lesson 3
Charles Law
Lesson 2
Lesson 4
Boyles Law
Ideal Gas Law
Review
Review of all four lessons
5
Lesson 1 Basic Terminology
  • This lesson reviews terms used to describe the
    properties and behavior of gases.

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6
Opening thoughts
  • Have you ever

Seen a hot air balloon?
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7
Opening thoughts
  • Have you ever

Seen a hot air balloon?
Had a soda bottle spray all over you?
Baked (or eaten) a nice, fluffy cake?
These are all examples of gases at work!
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8
Properties of Gases
  • You can predict the behavior of gases based on
    the following properties

Pressure
Volume
Amount (moles)
Temperature
Lets review each of these briefly
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9
  • You can predict the behavior of gases based on
    the following properties

Pressure
Volume
Amount (moles)
Temperature
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10
Pressure
Pressure is defined as the force the gas exerts
on a given area of the container in which it is
contained. The SI unit for pressure is the
Pascal, Pa.
  • If youve ever inflated a tire, youve probably
    made a pressure measurement in pounds (force) per
    square inch (area).

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11
  • You can predict the behavior of gases based on
    the following properties

Pressure
Volume
Amount (moles)
Temperature
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12
Volume
Volume is the three-dimensional space inside the
container holding the gas. The SI unit for
volume is the cubic meter, m3. A more common and
convenient unit is the liter, L.
Think of a 2-liter bottle of soda to get an idea
of how big a liter is. (OK, how big two of them
are)
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13
  • You can predict the behavior of gases based on
    the following properties

Pressure
Volume
Amount (moles)
Temperature
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Amount (moles)
Amount of substance is tricky. As weve already
learned, the SI unit for amount of substance is
the mole, mol. Since we cant count molecules,
we can convert measured mass (in kg) to the
number of moles, n, using the molecular or
formula weight of the gas.
By definition, one mole of a substance contains
approximately 6.022 x 1023 particles of the
substance. You can understand why we use mass
and moles!
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15
  • You can predict the behavior of gases based on
    the following properties

Pressure
Volume
Amount (moles)
Temperature
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16
Temperature
Temperature is the measurement of heator how
fast the particles are moving. Gases, at room
temperature, have a lower boiling point than
things that are liquid or solid at the same
temperature. Remember Not all substance freeze,
melt or evaporate at the same temperature.
Water will freeze at zero degrees Celsius.
However Alcohol will not freeze at this
temperature.
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17
How do they all relate?
  • Some relationships of gases may be easy to
    predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we
    understand the factors that affect the behavior
    of gases, we will study how those factors
    interact.

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18
How do they all relate?
  • Some relationships of gases may be easy to
    predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we
    understand the factors that affect the behavior
    of gases, we will study how those factors
    interact.

Lets go!
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19
Lesson 2 Boyles Law
  • This lesson introduces Boyles Law, which
    describes the relationship between pressure and
    volume of gases.

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Boyles Law
  • This law is named for Charles Boyle, who studied
    the relationship between pressure, p, and volume,
    V, in the mid-1600s.
  • Boyle determined that for the same amount of a
    gas at constant temperature, results in an
    inverse relationship when one goes up, the
    other comes down.

pressure
volume
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What does Boyles Law mean?
Suppose you have a cylinder with a piston in the
top so you can change the volume. The cylinder
has a gauge to measure pressure, is contained so
the amount of gas is constant, and can be
maintained at a constant temperature. A decrease
in volume will result in increased pressure. Hard
to picture? Lets fix that!
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22
Boyles Law at Work
Doubling the pressure reduces the volume by half.
Conversely, when the volume doubles, the
pressure decreases by half.
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23
Lesson 2 Complete!
  • This concludes Lesson 2 on Boyles Law!

Click the Main Menu button below, then select
Lesson 3 to learn about how temperature fits in.
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24
Lesson 3 Charles Law
  • This lesson introduces Charles Law, which
    describes the relationship between volume and
    temperature of gases.

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25
Charles Law
  • This law is named for Jacques Charles, who
    studied the relationship volume, V, and
    temperature, T, around the turn of the 19th
    century.
  • This defines a direct relationship With the
    same amount of gas he found that as the volume
    increases the temperature also increases. If the
    temperature decreases than the volume also
    decreases.

volume
temperature
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What does Charles Law mean?
Suppose you have that same cylinder with a piston
in the top allowing volume to change, and a
heating/cooling element allowing for changing
temperature. The force on the piston head is
constant to maintain pressure, and the cylinder
is contained so the amount of gas is constant. An
increase in temperature results in increased
volume. Hard to picture? Lets fix it (again)!
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27
Charles Law at Work
As the temperature increases, the volume
increases. Conversely, when the temperature
decreases, volume decreases.
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Lesson 3 Complete!
  • This concludes Lesson 3 on Charles Law!

Click the Main Menu button below, then select
Lesson 4 to put all the pieces together with the
Ideal Gas Law.
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Lesson 3 Complete!
  • This concludes Lesson 3 on Charles Law!

Click the Main Menu button below, then select
Lesson 4 to put all the pieces together with the
Ideal Gas Law.
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30
Mission complete!
  • You have completed the lessons and review.
    Congratulations!
  • You should now have a better understanding of the
    properties of gases, how they interrelate, and
    how to use them to predict gas behavior.
  • Please click on the button below to reset the
    lesson for the next student. Thanks!

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