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Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies


Chapter 24 Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies Terms to Know Shortened Cakes Unshortened Cakes Chiffon Cake Pastry Crystalline Candy Noncrystalline Candy Sugar Syrup ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies

Chapter 24
  • Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies

Terms to Know
  • Shortened Cakes
  • Unshortened Cakes
  • Chiffon Cake
  • Pastry
  • Crystalline Candy
  • Noncrystalline Candy
  • Sugar Syrup

  • Describe the function of the basic ingredients
    used in cakes
  • Identify six types of cookies
  • Explain principles of pastry preparation
  • Compare characteristics of crystalline and non
    crystalline candies
  • Prepare cakes and cookies

  • Two Groups
  • Shortened Cakes (butter cakes) contain fat and
    most contain leavening agents.
  • Tender, Moist and Velvety
  • Unshortened Cakes (Foam Cakes) contain no fat,
    leavened by air and steam
  • Angel food and Sponge Cakes
  • Chiffon Cakes cross between shortened and
    unshortened. Contain fat(shortened cakes) and
    beaten egg whites (unshortened cakes)
  • Large volume, but not as light as shortened cake

  • Flour, sugar, eggs, liquid and salt.
  • Shortened cakes fat and leavening agent
  • Unshortened cakes cream of tartar
  • Flour gives structure
  • Sugar gives sweetness
  • Eggs improve flavor and color
  • Liquid provides moisture
  • Salt provides flavoring
  • Fat tenderizes the gluten
  • Leavening Agents make cakes rise and become
    porous and moist
  • Cream of Tartar makes egg whites whiter and cake
    grain finer, stabilizes egg whites
  • Flavorings help make cake special

Measuring Ingredients
  • Flour, Fat, Sugar and Eggs affect the development
    of gluten
  • Correct proportions will create a cake that is
    light and tender
  • Flour
  • A cake made with too much flour is compact and
  • A cake made with too little is coarse and may
  • Fat and Sugar
  • Too much fat or sugar over tenderize the gluten
    and weaken the cake. It will be heavy and coarse
    and may fall
  • A cake made with too little fat or sugar will be
  • Liquid
  • Too much liquid will cause the cake to be heavy
    and soggy
  • Too little will cause the cake to be dry and
  • Too many eggs will make the cake rubbery and tough

  • Must mix the correct proportions
  • Should be neither over mixed or under mixed
  • Overmixing causes gluten to overdevelop
  • The cake will be tough
  • Overmixing Angel Food Cake will cause air to be
  • The volume of the cake will be smaller

  • Make sure pans are the correct size
  • If they are too small batter will overflow
  • If they are too large cake will be flat and may
    be dry
  • Correct size creates cake with a gently rounded
  • Grease pans for shortened cakes and flour them

Baking Continued
  • Do NOT grease pans for unshortened cakes, because
    they must cling to the pan during baking
  • Place cake in preheated oven at the correct
  • Bake them until they test done
  • TEST Place a toothpick in the middle, if it
    comes out clean the cake is done OR lightly touch
    the center with your fingertip, if it springs
    back, it's done
  • If temp. is too high cake may burn, If cake is
    baked too long, it may be dry

Preparing Shortened Cakes
  • Conventional Method Cream the fat and sugar
    together until light and fluffy. Beat the eggs
    into the creamed fat and sugar. Then add the dry
    ingredients alternately with the liquid
  • Quick-mix Method or One Bowl Method measure the
    dry ingredients into the mixing bowl. Beat the
    and part of the liquid with the dry ingredients.
    Add the remaining liquid and unbeaten eggs last.

Preparing Shortened Cakes
  • Pour cake batter into pans
  • Arrange pans in the oven so that they are not
    touching each other or any part of the oven
  • Hot spots may form and the cake may bake unevenly
  • Test cake for doneness
  • Let cake cool for about 10 minutes

  • High Quality Shortened Cakes
  • Velvety and Light
  • Interior has small fine cells with thin walls
  • Crusts are thin and evenly browned
  • Top crust is smooth or slightly pebbly and gently
  • Flavor is mild and pleasing

Pound Cakes
  • Shortened Cakes that contain no chemical
    leavening agents
  • Pound cakes rely on air and steam for leavening
  • Pound cakes are more compact than other shortened
    cakes and have a close grain

Unshortened Cakes
  • Ingredients should be at room temperature
  • Cold eggs will not achieve maximum volume
  • Different mixing methods
  • Angel food Beat egg whites with some of the
    sugar until stiff. Carefully fold the flour and
    remaining sugar into the beaten egg whites
  • Sponge cake Beat dry ingredients into the egg
    yolk. Then fold beaten egg whites into the egg
    yolk mixture

Preparing Unshortened Cakes
  • Pour batter into ungreased tube pan. Run spatula
    through batter to release air bubbles and seal
    batter against the sides of the pan
  • Bake in preheated oven for recommended period of
  • Test for doneness touch the cracks. They should
    feel dry and no imprint should remain
  • When you remove it from the oven, immediately
    suspend the pan upside down to prevent loss of
    volume during cooling
  • Cool cake completely before removing

  • High Quality
  • Large volume
  • Interior is spongy and porous
  • Has thin cell walls
  • Cake is tender and moist

Sponge Cakes
  • Contain whole eggs rather than just egg whites
  • Mixing method Beat egg yolks until they are
    thick and lemon colored.
  • Add liquid, sugar and salt to the yolks.
  • Continue beating until the mixture is thick.
  • Gently fold flour into the yolk mixture.
  • Then fold stiffly beaten egg whites into the
    flour-yolk mixture

Chiffon Cakes
  • Mixing Method
  • Mix egg yolks, oil, liquid and flavoring with dry
  • Beat mixture until smooth
  • Beat in egg whites with the sugar and cream of
  • Fold egg white mixture into other mixture
  • Characteristics
  • Large Volume
  • Interior is moist and has cells with thin walls
  • Tender and has a pleasing flavor

Microwaving Cakes
  • Shortened Cakes can be cooked in the microwave
  • They will not have the same browning as cakes
    cooked in the oven
  • Microwave cakes one layer at a time
  • Use round or ring shaped pans for even cooking
  • Begin at medium power level, then rotate the cake
    and continue cooking on high power
  • Test for doneness with a toothpick

  • Six basic groups
  • Rolled Stiff doughs
  • Drop Soft dough
  • Bar Soft dough
  • Refrigerator High proportion of Fat, Stiff Dough
  • Pressed Rich,Stiff Dough
  • Molded Stiff Dough
  • Doughs differ in consistency and you shape them

  • Rolled Stiff doughs
  • Roll the dough, cut cookies from the dough with a
    cookie cutter.
  • Sugar cookies are popular rolled cookies
  • Drop Soft dough
  • Drop or press the cookies from a spoon onto the
    cookie sheet. Spread more than rolled cookies.
  • Chocolate chip cookies are popular drop cookies
  • Bar Soft dough
  • Spread dough evenly in a jelly roll pan or square
    cake pan and bake it.
  • May be chewy or cake like, Can be cut into
    different shapes
  • Brownies are popular bar cookies

  • Refrigerator High proportion of Fat, Stiff Dough
  • Form dough into a long roll, wrap roll in plastic
    wrap and refrigerate it until firm. Cut dough
    into thin slices and place on lightly greased
    cookie sheet
  • Pinwheel cookies are popular refrigerator cookies
  • Pressed Rich,Stiff Dough
  • Pack dough into a cookie press(utensil has
    perforated disks through which you push the
    dough) cookies will vary in shape and size
  • Swedish spritz cookies are popular pressed
  • Molded Stiff Dough
  • Break off small pieces of dough and shape them
    with your fingers.
  • Crescents and small balls are popular molded

Cookie Ingredients
  • Flour, sugar,liquid, fat, salt and leavening.
  • Most contain more fat and sugar and less liquid
    than cakes
  • Rolled cookies contain no liquid
  • Proportion of ingredients and the way you shape
    them determine whether cookies are crisp or soft

Cookie Mixing Methods
  • Conventional mixing method used for shortened
  • Blend sugar and fat until soft and fluffy
  • Add the eggs. Liquid and flavorings, followed by
    the dry ingredients.
  • Cookies are crisp and chewy
  • Macaroons, meringues and kisses contain beaten
    egg whites
  • Mix them like angel food cakes
  • You mix some cookies using the biscuit method

Microwaving Cookies
  • Bar Cookies work well in the microwave
  • Because the whole pan cooks at once
  • Use foil shields to keep side from burning in
    square or oblong pans
  • Microwaved on medium power
  • Checked for doneness with a toothpick

Storing Cookies
  • Store crisp cookies in a container with a loose
    fitting cover
  • Crisp cookies need to remain dry
  • Store dry cookies in a container with a tight
    fitting container
  • Store bar cookies in the original pan if you
    cover them
  • You can freeze cookies in dough form or after

Freshening Cookies
  • If crisp cookies have become soft
  • Place cookies on a cookies sheet in a 300 degree
    oven for a few minutes
  • If soft cookies become hard
  • Place a piece of bread, an apple slice or an
    orange section in the container

  • 4 Kinds
  • Fruit 2 crust pies May have solid or lattice or
    decorative top. May use commercially prepared
    filling or make your own
  • Cream 1 crust pies. Use corn-starch thickened
    pudding mixture to make filling. Meringue topping
    is often used
  • Custard 1 crust pies. Filled with custard made
    from milk, eggs and sugar. Custard may or may not
    contain other ingredients
  • Chiffon light and airy one crust pies. Filled
    with a mixture of gelatin and cooked beaten egg
    whites. Some contain whip cream. They need to be
    chilled until filling sets

  • Most will be cooked
  • A few with special recipes do not need to be
  • Cooked candies are either crystalline or
  • Crystalline Candies Contain fine sugar crystals.
    Taste smooth and creamy
  • Fudge, Fondant, Divinity
  • Noncrystalline candies do not contain sugar
    crystals, Can be chewy or brittle.
  • Peanut Brittle, Toffee and caramels

  • Pastry the dough used to make pie crusts
  • Not difficult to make, but requires patience and
  • Sugar Syrup mixture of sugar and liquid that is
    cooked to a thick consistency
  • All candies begin with this