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Protecting Food Resources: Pest Management

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Scald them Integrated Pest Management Crop & pests are evaluated as parts of an ... Making the Transition to More Sustainable Agriculture More research, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protecting Food Resources: Pest Management


1
Protecting Food Resources Pest Management
  • Chapter 13 Food, Soil, Conservation and Pest
    Management

2
What is a pest?
  • Any species that competes with us for food,
    invades lawns and gardens, destroys wood in
    houses, spreads disease, invades ecosystems, or
    is simply a nuisance.

3
Pest Control
  • Pesticides chemicals to kill or control
    populations of organisms we consider undesirable.
  • insecticides
  • herbicides
  • fungicides
  • rodenticides

4
Types of Pesticides
  • First-generation pesticides
  • natural chemicals or botanicals borrowed from
    plants that had been defending themselves

5
Types of Pesticides
  • Second-generation pesticides
  • chemicals produced in the laboratory or chemicals
    created by improvements on first-generation
    pesticides and microbotanicals
  • broad spectrum agents
  • selective agents

6
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7
Modern Synthetic Pesticides
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

8
Advantages of Modern Synthetic Pesticides
  • Save lives
  • Increase food supplies
  • Increase profits for farmers
  • Fast acting
  • Human health risks are low when applied properly
  • Safety is improving

9
Disadvantages of Modern Synthetic Pesticides
  • Accelerate genetic resistance to pesticides in
    pests
  • Increasing costs to farmers
  • Non-specific/ May kill beneficial organisms
  • Pollute land and waterways
  • Can harm wildlife
  • Some can threaten human health

10
U.S. Pesticide Control Legislation
  • Scope
  • 2.4 million tons of pesticides generated/yr
  • 25,000 commercial pesticide products
  • Regulation
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
    Act (FIFRA) 1947, 1972
  • Tasks EPA with evaluating health hazards of
    pesticides
  • Food Quality Protection Act 1996
  • EPA must reduce the allowed levels of pesticide
    residues on food by 10x if data on harmful
    effects on children is inadequate
  • Enforcement is poor.
  • Banned substances may be manufactured and
    exported.

11

What Can You Do?
Reducing Exposure to Pesticides
Grow some of your food using organic methods.
Buy organic food.
Wash and scrub all fresh fruits, vegetables,
and wild foods you pick.
Eat less or no meat.
Trim the fat from meat.
Fig. 13-30, p. 299
12
Alternative Pest Control Measures
  • Crop rotation

13
Alternative Pest Control Measures
  • Adjust planting times to avoid pest emergence

14
Alternative Pest Control Measures
  • Growing crops in areas where major pests do not
    exist
  • Polyculture

15
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16
Alternative Pest Control Measures
  • Implant genetic resistance

17
Alternative Pest Control Measures
  • Implant genetic resistance
  • Encourage natural pest enemies
  • Trap using pest pheromones
  • Use pest hormones to control pest development.
  • Scald them

18
Integrated Pest Management
  • Crop pests are evaluated as parts of an
    ecological system.
  • Uses combination of biological, cultivation, and
    chemical approaches

19
Integrated Pest Management
20
SOLUTIONS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  • Three main ways to reduce hunger and malnutrition
    and the harmful effects of agriculture
  • Slow population growth.
  • Sharply reduce poverty.
  • Develop and phase in systems of more sustainable,
    low input agriculture over the next few decades.

21

Solutions
Sustainable Organic Agriculture
More
Less
High-yield polyculture
Soil erosion
Soil salinization
Organic fertilizers
Aquifer depletion
Biological pest control
Overgrazing
Overfishing
Integrated pest management
Loss of biodiversity
Efficient irrigation
Loss of prime cropland
Perennial crops
Food waste
Crop rotation
Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing
Water-efficient crops
Soil conservation
Population growth
Subsidies for sustainable farming and fishing
Poverty
Fig. 13-33, p. 302
22
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Results of 22 year study comparing organic and
    conventional farming.

Figure 13-34
23
Solutions Making the Transition to More
Sustainable Agriculture
  • More research, demonstration projects, government
    subsidies, and training can promote more
    sustainable organic agriculture.

Figure 13-35
24
References
  • http//bruinbooks.com/mosquito.htm
  • Contech Inc. 2008. Web. 09 Mar. 2010.
    lthttp//www.pherotech.com/page223.htmgt
  • http//www.biconet.com/botanicals/GIFs/rotPyr2.jpg
  • http//www.btinternet.com/micka.wffps/pyrethrum.j
    pg
  • http//www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/DDT-Household-P
    ests-USDA-Mar47a.GIF
  • http//psdblog.worldbank.org/photos/uncategorized/
    2007/08/20/ddt_molecule.jpg
  • http//www.actionoutdoors.org/edres/images/DDT.jpg
  • http//www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/energy/pestmgt.
    jpg
  • http//www.canolacouncil.org/chapter10.aspx
  • http//www.self-sufficient.co.uk/Crop-Rotation.htm
  • Issue 22 Pest Crop Newsletter, Entomology
    Extension, Purdue University." Entomology
    Department at Purdue University, 31 Aug. 2007.
    Web. 06 Feb. 2012.
  • Palmer, Nick. "Polyculture and Agribusiness." Web
    log post. Sustainability and Stuff According to
    Nick Palmer... 15 July 2009. Web. 6 Feb. 2012.
  • Welter, Sonya. "The Dangers of Conventional
    Farming Green Guides Ecovian." Ecovian
    Green Living Environmental Community. Second
    Path LLC, 2011. Web. 06 Feb. 2012.
  • "You Cant Avoid Genetically Engineered Foods."
    Web log post. Frankenfood/Disinformation. The
    Disinformation Company, Ltd., 26 Feb. 2011.
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