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The American Revolution


The Road to Revolution What is meant by salutary neglect and how does this lead directly to the revolution? Revolution? What was the Revolutionary mov t at ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Revolution

The American Revolution 1775-1783
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The Road to Revolution
  • What is meant by salutary neglect and how does
    this lead directly to the revolution?

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  • What was the Revolutionary movt at its core
    really all about?
  • The amount of taxation?
  • The right of Parliament to tax?
  • The political corruption of Britain and the
    virtue of America?
  • The right of a king to govern America?
  • The colonies growing sense of natl identity
    apart from Britain?
  • Was the Revolution truly a radical overturning of
    govt and society - the usual definition of a
    revolution - or something far more limited or
    even conservative in its defense of traditional

  • Britain at the crossroads
  • Dean Josiah Tucker Advises a Divorce (1774)
  • What 5 points does he make about a divorce
    between the colonies and the motherland?

Whose Revolution
  • Varying viewpoints whose revolution?

An ideological view of the Revolution as
resulting from the colonists ideas about liberty
and power. The colonists believed they saw
emerging from the welter of events during the
decade after the Stamp Act a pattern whose
meaning was unmistakableThey saw about them,
with increasing clarity, no merely mistaken, or
even evil, policies violating the principles upon
which freedom rested, but what appeared to be
evidence of nothing less than a deliberate
assault launched surreptitiously by plotters
against liberty both in England and in America.
This belief transformed the colonists
struggle Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological
Origins of the American Revolution (1967)
Progressive view of the Revolution as product of
social conflict among colonial groups. It was
the opposition of interests In America that
chiefly made men extremists On either side.
Those men who wished to take a safe middle
ground, who wished neither to renounce their
country nor to mark themselves as rebels, could
no longer hold together Carl L. Becker
Beginnings of the American People (1915)
  • Parliament rejected the First Continental
    Congress petition
  • April 1775 Br. Commander in Boston sent
    detachment of troops to nearby Lexington and
  • Shot heard around the world
  • British lost 1/3 of their army

On the Eve of the Revolution ?
Britain Americans
  • defensive fight
  • self sustaining agric
  • Moral advantage just cause
  • pop adv 31
  • Naval power
  • Wealth
  • Professional army
  • disjointed/jealous
  • Badly organized
  • No currency
  • Ireland worry
  • French backstab
  • No Wm Pitt to organize
  • Liked American cousins

Write this down!
Second Continental Congress
  • May 1775
  • Conservative
  • No well defined desire for independence
  • Best political move - drafting G Washington
  • Va to balance Ma - aristocrat to balance masses

Loyalist Strongholds
Washingtons Headaches
  • Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war
    for independence the other third were Loyalists,
    and the final third were neutral.
  • State/colony loyalties.
  • Congress couldnt tax to raise money for the
    Continental Army.
  • Poor training until the arrival of Baron von

Exports Imports 1768-1783
Make Up Your Mind!
  • One hand Americans trying to affirm loyalty to
    king and trying to patch up
  • Other hand raising armies and shooting Br.

Military Strategies
The Americans
The British
  • Attrition the Brits had a long supply line.
  • Guerilla tactics fight an insurgent war ? you
    dont have to win a battle, just wear the British
  • Make an alliance with one of Britains enemies.
  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the
    No. the So.
  • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods
    and supplies from an ally.
  • Divide and Conquer ? use the Loyalists.

  • Trenton, December 26, 1776
  • Princeton, January 2, 1777
  • Saratoga, September 1777
  • 2nd Saratoga, October 1777
  • Valley Forge, Dec. 1777 June 1778
  • France joins the war against Britain, February 6,
  • British take Charleston, SC May 12 1780
  • American victory at Cowpens, SC Jan. 17, 1781
  • American victory at Guilford Courthouse NC Mar 15
  • British surrender at Yorktown Oct 19, 1781
  • Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3 1783
  • Battle of Lexington Concord April 19, 1775
  • Fort Ticonderoga May 10, 1775
  • Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775
  • Common Sense, Feb 14,1776
  • Siege of Charleston, June 1776
  • Declaration, July 1776
  • Battles for New York August October, 1776
  • Battles for New York August October, 1776

Phase I The Northern Campaign 1775-1776
May 1775 Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold.
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
Bunker Hill (June, 1775)
The British suffered over 40 casualties.
Second Continental Congress
  • Olive Branch Petition
  • July 1775
  • Now it is treason - punishable by hanging!
  • Then he hired Hessians!

Thomas Paines Common Sense aka pising in the
  • Best seller
  • Common sense said to completely rebel - Britain
    was smaller than us!
  • Biblical language appealed to the masses

Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Not just independence but whole new republic
    -where power comes from the people themselves
  • Radical revert to Greece
  • Traditional was mixed govt
  • This suggestion was heard b/c
  • Colonist experience in self - govt ex New
  • Experience in democratic town meets
  • Committees of correspondence showed republican
    govt working
  • No hereditary aristocracy in the colonies

Citizen Virtue
  • Because political power will no longer reside
    with the king
  • Individuals need to sacrifice their personal
    self-interest to the public good
  • collective good of the people mattered more
    than private rights and interests
  • Republicanism for them meant an end to hereditary
    aristocracy but not an end to all social
    hierarchy. Many still worried the revolutionary
    fervor for liberty would overwhelm the stability
    of the social order

Declaration of Independence
What are the single most important 35 words in
the English language?
  • Handout
  • Price they paid

Phase II NY PA 1777-1778
New York City in Flames (1776)
Burgoynes Plan - 1777
  • Capture the Hudson River Valley, thereby cutting
    New England off from the rest of the
    country,squeezing it to death.
  • sail down Lake Champlain and recapture Fort
    Ticonderoga. head through the forest to try and
    attack the Americans.
  • Burgoyne was only traveling 22 miles, but it took
    him 20 days to cover it because he had 600 wagons
    going through the forest and the muddy marsh with
  • Over 30 of them were carrying his own personal
    baggage because even in the wilderness, Gentleman
    Johnny Burgoyne ate off of silver plates. This
    gave the Americans time to prepare for the
  • When the British got to Saratoga, their 6,000 man
    army was outnumbered and after a fierce battle,
    they lost.
  • Shortly after, the French decided to help the
    American cause for freedom.
  • These were the two major turning points in the
    war, which turned it in America's favor.

Saratoga Turning Point of the War?
A modern-day re-enactment
Arnold Leading the Charge at Freeman's Farm
During the second battle of Saratoga on Oct. 7,
1777, Arnold led a headlong charge, captured a
key redoubt, was again wounded, and made the
British surrender inevitable. One of his
soldiers called Arnold "as brave a man as Ever
  • His bitterness, along with a need for money to
    pay heavy debts, led Arnold to negotiate with the
    British. He conceived a plan to betray West
    Point, a post that he commanded

His attempted treachery was revealed when John
Andre (left), a British
major, was captured
in September 1780 carrying Arnold's message.
Arnold escaped to the enemy lines and was
commissioned a brigadier general in the British
army. For his property losses, he claimed and
was paid about 10,000
Washington Crossing the Delaware
Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851! Is it realistic?
The People of Valley Forge
  • There were 12,000 men and women of the
    Continental Army in Valley Forge on during the
    winter of 1777.
  • The Commander-in-Chief was General George
  • It was a difficult time for them.
  • There wasn't enough food or shelter from the
  • They had lost battles at Brandywine in September
    and Germantown in October.
  • They were discouraged and wondered if they could
    even win the war.
  • The men were as young as eleven and as old as 60.
    Most of the soldiers were white, but there were
    some blacks and Indians. There were even some
    foreigners there who helped the soldiers.
  • 2,000 died the others stayed at their posts

THE NAVAL WAR - it goes global!
  • An important factor, and one not always
    remembered, was that the Continental Congress
    relied heavily on aid from abroad. Aid which
    included not only muskets and powder, but
    ultimately ships and men as well.
  • This aid could only be brought to American shores
    by water, and to do it required a sea power to
    counterbalance that of England. The struggle for
    North America was fought not only at Trenton,
    Monmouth,and Saratoga, but also in the cold, gray
    seas off Ushant off Cadiz, and in the shadows of
    grim Gibralter and in the tropical waters of the
    West Indies

Phase III The Southern Strategy 1780-1781
Britains Southern Strategy
  • Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in
    the South.
  • Southern resources were more valuable/worth
  • The British win a number of small victories, but
    cannot pacify the countryside similar to U. S.
    failures in Vietnam!
  • Good US General Nathanial Greene

The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau
Admiral De Grasse
Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown
The World Turned Upside Down!
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
Recap of Important Battles
  • 1. Lexington Concord 1775
  • Shot heard _at_ the world
  • 2. Breeds- Bunker Hill 1775
  • Dont fire til you see the whites of their eyes
  • 3. Trenton- Princeton 1776
  • G. Washington crosses frozen Delaware River
    Christmas Eve
  • 4. Saratoga Oct 17, 1777
  • Howe and Burgoyne( Br) vs. Gates (colonist)
  • Fr - Valley Forge
  • 5. Yorktown Oct 17, 1781 end war
  • Cornwallis (Br) vs. G. Washington and Lafayette
  • 6. Treaty of Paris Sept 1783
  • United States recognized officially as a country

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Why did the British Lose???
North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783