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ALTERNATIVE CROPS

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ALTERNATIVE CROPS Prepared by Mr. Eddie McKie South Region Area Horticulture Teacher Georgia Department of Education For the Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ALTERNATIVE CROPS


1
ALTERNATIVE CROPS
  • Prepared by Mr. Eddie McKie
  • South Region Area Horticulture Teacher
  • Georgia Department of Education
  • For the Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum
    Office
  • May 2002

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education
Curriculum Office June, 2002
2
  • Agriculture is defined as the activities
    concerned with the production of plants and
    animals.
  • Horticulture is defined as the culture of plants
    for food, comfort, and beauty. Horticulture is
    divided into three important areas
  • Ornamental Horticulture
  • Olericulture
  • Pomology

3
Traditional Agricultural Crops
  • Peanuts
  • State average yield of 2600 lbs./acre.
  • Quota price at 610.00 per ton.
  • Non-quota price at 132.00 per ton.
  • Loan price at 175.00 per ton.

4
Traditional Agricultural Crops continued
  • Cotton
  • State average yield of 602.34 lbs. per acre in
    1998
  • Dec. futures at .6288 per lb.
  • Soybeans
  • State average yield of 21 bushels per acre in
    1988
  • Nov. futures of 5.48 ½ per bushel

5
Traditional Agricultural Crops continued
  • Corn
  • Calhoun County average yield in 1998 was 125.27
    bushels per acre
  • Dec. futures at 2.59 ½ per bushel

6
AlternativesFruits Vegetables
  • Advantages
  • Generally brings a good price
  • Adaptable to Georgias climatic and soil
    conditions
  • Because of urban sprawl, Florida is loosing some
    of its production capabilities

7
AlternativesFruits Vegetablescontinued
  • Disadvantages
  • Labor intensive
  • Expensive to produce
  • Uncertain markets

8
Butterbeans
  • Can be grown both in the spring and fall in
    Georgia
  • Can be grown in Georgia for fresh market,
    processing or pick-your-own
  • Grow best in well-drained loam soils with a high
    level of organic matter

9
Butterbeanscontinued
  • Harvest beans for fresh market and pick-your-own
    markets when the pods are well-filled.
  • Harvest beans for processing according to
    processors desires. Can be harvested after the
    beans are mature in a once-over operation.

10
Cantaloupes
  • Most of the commercial acreage is concentrated in
    South Georgia
  • State average of around 5 to 6 tons per acre
  • Experienced growers have produced 10 tons per
    acre with good conditions
  • Cantaloupes should be harvested at 3/4 to full
    slip. At 3/4 slip, a fourth of the stem will
    adhere and break rather than slip free. Check
    with seed supplier to determine when to harvest.

11
Cucumbers
  • Cucumbers are divided into two types--Slicing and
    Pickling
  • Most cucumbers grown for the fresh market and
    shipping are of the slicing types.
  • Cucumbers will grow on most soil types in
    Georgia, but tend to grow better in soils high in
    organic matter.

12
Cucumberscontinued
  • Cucumbers mature rapidly in hot weather so they
    should be harvested every other day.
  • Slicing and fresh market cucumbers should be
    harvested at 1 1/2 to 2 in diameter and 6-10
    long and should be well formed with a dark green
    firm texture.
  • Cucumbers harvested in hot weather should be
    pre-cooled before shipping.

13
Greens(Collards, Turnips, Mustard)
  • Planting dates August through early October
    early February through early April
  • Harvesting 35-50 days for turnips and mustard
    60-80 days for collards
  • Can be grown in a wide range of soil types
  • Harvest when stems are tender by feel
  • Georgia accounts for 22 of annual sales volume
    but has 40 of the market in April

14
Okra
  • Excellent profit potential
  • Extremely labor intensive
  • A well-drained, fertile soil is best for okra
    production. Select a soil with a good water
    holding capacity.
  • Okra can be grown for either processing or for
    the fresh market.

15
Okra Harvesting
  • Harvesting for processing should be allowed to
    get as long as possible without becoming fibrous
    or hard. Usually three harvests per week are
    required.
  • Harvesting for fresh market 3 to 5 as long as
    it is still tender. May require harvest every
    day for quality product.

16
Snap Beans
  • Can be grown successfully as both a spring and
    fall crops.
  • Grow best on fertile, well drained soils with a
    fairly high level of organic matter.
  • Can be mechanically harvested.
  • Fresh market--should be harvested before the
    beans are fully mature.
  • Processing beans--should be harvested when 60 to
    80 are sieve size No. 4 or below.

17
Southern Peas
  • Can be grown on a wide variety of soils that are
    well drained.
  • Can be planted for spring, summer and fall
    production.
  • For fresh market, peas should be harvested 50 to
    80 days after planting depending on variety.
    Pods should be completely filled but not dry.

18
Southern Peascontinued
  • Fresh peas often are sold by the bushel unshelled
    as well as shelled. A bushel of unshelled
    southern peas weighs about 30 lbs.
  • For processing, peas are harvested after the
    mature stage in a once-over machine harvest. The
    processor will determine the stage at which the
    crop should be harvested.

19
Squash
  • Grown throughout Georgia for the local market as
    well as for shipping
  • Medium-textured, well-drained soils produce the
    best yields, but any well-drained, fertile soil
    will produce good yields under proper management
    practices
  • Squash will not tolerate poorly drained soils

20
Types of Squash
  • Summer Types
  • Crooknecks
  • Scallop
  • Straightnecks
  • Zucchini
  • Winter Types
  • Acorn
  • Waltham Butternut
  • Hubbard
  • Butternut
  • Buttercup

21
Summer Squash
  • Harvested over several weeks
  • Should be harvested every other day during the
    peek production season.
  • Ready for harvest when they reach an edible size.
    The size depends on the market that is receiving
    them.

22
Sweet Corn
  • Can be grown most any where in Georgia.
  • Needs fertile soil to produce efficiently.
  • Can be harvested for fresh market or for
    processing.
  • Primarily hand harvested.

23
Watermelons
  • Well adapted to the coastal plain soils of south
    Georgia
  • Yields of 20,000 to 40,000 lbs. per acre are
    common
  • State Farmers Watermelon Market in Cordele, but
    best to contract melons

24
Winter Squash
  • Generally harvested when mature.
  • They are harvested in one to two pickings.

25
  • Remember If producing vegetables on a large
    scale, be sure to have a market before starting
    the endeavor.
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