PLAY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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* * What is Play? It is educational it enables children to learn about themselves and the world around them It provides an opportunity to make ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PLAY

What is Play?
  • It is educational it enables
    children to learn about themselves and
    the world around them
  • It provides an opportunity to make choices and
    problem solve
  • It allows children to use their imagination
  • It is a way of making friends
  • It is essential to a young childs development

Views on Play
  • Freud and Erikson saw play as a useful way of
    helping children master their anxieties and
    conflicts tension is relived in play, which
    helps the child cope with problems
  • Piaget believed play advances childrens
    cognitive development play provides an
    opportunity for cognitive structures to be

The Views of Theorists
  • Vygotsky also believed that play is an excellent
    setting for cognitive development and the leading
    source of development. He was interested in the
    make-believe and symbolic aspects of play, which
    he believed advanced a childs creative thought
  • The United Nations Convention on the Rights of
    the Child recognizes play as one of the basic
    human rights of children
  • Article 31 States Parties recognize the right
    of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in
    play and recreational activities appropriate to
    the age of the child and to participate freely in
    cultural life and the arts

Play Overall Development
  • Play supports children in all areas of their
  • When a child uses their body to catch a ball,
    jump and run, they are enhancing their physical
  • Puzzles and games support intellectual
  • Pretend games and drama allow children to develop
    socially and emotionally

Suitable Toys for Children
  • The Hand to Mouth Stage ( birth to 1 yr)
  • Colourful objects, toys that rattle, musical
    toys, soft toys to cuddle
  • The Toddling Stage (1 2 yrs)
  • Push/pull toys, large balls to roll, toys to
  • The Exploring Stage (2 3 yrs)
  • Picture books, large-piece puzzles, sandbox,

Suitable Toys for Children
  • The Pretending Stage (3 4 yrs)
  • Dress-up clothes, house centres, toy phone, dolls
  • The Creative Stage (4 6 yrs)
  • Costumes, clay, finger paints, crafts, building
  • The Active Stage (6 10 yrs)
  • Skates, bicycles, craft
  • The Mastery Stage (10 14 yrs)
  • Computers, board games, hobby supplies

Patterns of Play
  • Play becomes more complex and sophisticated as
    children grow and mature physically, socially,
    intellectually and emotionally
  • In a study done by Mildred Parten in the early
    1900s , Parten observed children between the ages
    of 2 5 and categorized their play into
    different categories
  • Unlike Piaget who saw childrens play as
    important to cognitive development, Parten
    emphasized the idea that learning to play is
    learning to relate to others

Patterns of Play
  • Parten observed the following types of
    play among children of various ages
  • 1. Solitary Play when a child plays by
    themselves. For example, a baby playing with
    his/her feet
  • 2. Onlooker Play when a child watches other
    children play, but does not join in. This is
    common in toddlers
  • 3. Parallel Play when children play side by side
    with different toys or activities and do not
    interact with one another. This type of play is
    common from 1 ½ to 2 ½ yrs of age

Patterns of Play
  • 4. Associative Play when a child plays with
    others and shares toys. This is a type of social
    play and is usually observed in children who are
    about 3 ½ years of age or older since they
    start to talk a great deal
  • 5. Cooperative Play a type of social play in
    which children play together in structured games
    that have rules like Hide and Seek or board
    games. To participate in this type of play,
    children need to have reached a stage of
    development in which they are intellectually able
    to understand and accept rules

Patterns of Play
  • 6. Symbolic Play refers to a spontaneous type of
    play that children of all ages enjoy, and it
    involves the use of toys or objects to represent
    something entirely different. For example, a
    hairbrush pushed around on the floor may be
    symbolic of a car or train
  • 7. Imaginative Play refers to a kind of dramatic
    play. Examples of this kind of play include
    playing house or other make-believe play. This
    type of play can bring together several other
    kinds of play like cooperative play and symbolic

Temperament Play
  • The kind of play a child prefers is closely
    related to their temperament (combo of physical,
    mental and emotional qualities of an individual)
  • Children who are very quiet and passive may enjoy
    onlooker play or solitary play
  • Quiet play requires a small area like the corner
    of the room
  • Active play requires more space like a playroom
    or family room
  • Very active and exuberant play requires lots of
    space like a gymnasium or the outdoors

Play and Language
  • Play is essential when it comes to language
    learning, in that it helps enhance such skills
  • During play, children learn to use language for
    different purposes in a variety of settings and
    with different people
  • Play allows for purposeful verbal interaction in
    which children use language to seek out
    information and provide information to others,
    explore ideas, express ideas and explore language

Development of Language
  • Language acquisition is the process by which
    humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce
    and use words to understand and communicate
  • This capacity involves the picking up of diverse
    capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an
    extensive vocabulary
  • This language might be vocal as with speech or
    manual as in sign

Process of Language Acquisition
  • Babbling and Other Vocalizations Crying and
    babbling are the first vocalizations humans make.
    Infants also start to use gestures at about 8 to
    12 months of age
  • Recognizing Language Sounds from birth up to
    seven months, infants can distinguish each of the
    150 sounds that make up of human speech

Process of Language Acquisition
  • First Words The utterance of the first word
    usually occurs at about 10 to 15 months of age.
    The vocabulary spurt refers to the rapid increase
    in an infants vocabulary from about 18 months of
    age. The average 18-month-old can speak about 50
    words but, by age 2, can speak about 200 words.
    The first words include common nouns (about
    people, toys, food, etc.) and greeting terms
  • Two-Word Utterances By 18 to 24 months of age,
    children usually utter two-word statements

Process of Language Acquisition
  • Lev Vygotsky suggested that children use parents
    and other adults as learning tools in the
    development of language
  • Through social interaction, parents naturally
    encourage language development by repeating
    sounds, playing rhyming and word games, singing
    songs, reading aloud, etc