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Cognitive Disabilities

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Cognitive Disabilities Intellectual Disabilities across the continuum Education of Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities What is Intellectual Disability? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cognitive Disabilities


1
Cognitive Disabilities
  • Intellectual Disabilities across the continuum
  • Education of Students with Severe and Multiple
    Disabilities

2
What is Intellectual Disability?
  • American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR)
    definition (1992)
  • Now the American Association on Intellectual and
    Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)
  • Updated in 2003
  • Limitations in Intellectual Functioning
  • Two standard deviations below the mean on
    intelligence tests
  • Limitations in adaptive skill
  • Age of onset prior to 18 years

3
Classification of Intellectual Disability
  • DSM-IV-T-R
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders, 4th Text Revision
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe
  • Profound

4
Levels of Support
  • Intermittent
  • Limited
  • Extensive
  • Pervasive
  • Types of Support
  • Formal
  • Informal

5
Causation
  • Sociocultural
  • Economic
  • Poor nutrition/medical care
  • Fewer opportunities for learning
  • Biomedical
  • Chromosomal
  • Metabolic
  • Brain disease
  • Behavioral/ Environmental
  • Maternal infection
  • Drug/alcohol abuse
  • Postnatal infection
  • Trauma
  • Unknown Causes

6
Physical Characteristics
  • May be no physical characteristics
  • More severe impairments more physical issues

7
Who are Students with Severe Disabilities?
  • Individuals who are in need of intensive support
    across the lifespan in critical areas of
    development
  • Self-help
  • Social
  • Cognitive
  • Physical

8
TASH Definition of Severe Disability www.tash.org
  • Individuals of all ages who require extensive
    ongoing support in more than one major life
    activity in order to participate in integrated
    community settings and to enjoy a quality of life
    that is available to citizens with fewer or no
    disabilities. Support may be required for life
    activities such as mobility, communication,
    self-care, and learning as necessary for
    independent living, employment and
    self-sufficiency (Myer et al., 1991, p.19)

9
Diagnoses associated with severe disabilities
  • Autism/PDD
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Dual Diagnoses (e.g., sensory impairments)
  • Physical impairments
  • Genetic Disorders
  • http//www.familyvillage.wisc.edu

10
Who has the severe disability?
11
Effects on Learning
  • May learn at a slower pace
  • May have difficulty with retention of information
  • May have difficulty using information that they
    have learned generalization
  • Problems with abstractions

12
Learner Characteristics
  • Problems with self-regulation
  • Strategies for learning
  • Metacognitive strategies
  • Adaptive skills being able to adapt to the
    demands of the environment
  • Generalization of classroom skills to the real
    world
  • More distractibility
  • Social skills
  • Lower self-image and expectations for failure

13
Education of Students with Severe Disabilities
  • Education and services will be needed across the
    lifespan
  • Early Intervention Services are critical
  • Also need to take a team approach to learning
  • Need to focus on the needs of parents
  • Respite care
  • In-home help
  • Education and support

14
Where should teaching take place?
  • Early segregated settings with kids similar to
    them
  • Now more benefit from inclusion in the general
    education environment
  • IDEA continuum of placements
  • Students should be educated in the Least
    Restrictive Environment
  • Community-based instruction
  • What you teach is what you get, and where you
    teach it is where you are going to get it

15
Continuum of Placements
16
Who should be teaching?
17
Education of Students with Intellectual and
Severe Disabilities
  • Early intervention is key!
  • Based upon the achievement of developmental
    milestones (Developmentally Appropriate Practice)
  • Head Start federally funded preschool program
    for students at risk for school failure

18
Curricular Focus
  • For some kids - Shift from academic instruction
    to functional skills
  • Self care skills
  • Social skills
  • Communication
  • Functional academics
  • Job Training
  • Goals should be meaningful to the persons life
    and age appropriate
  • Should have access to the general education
    curriculum regardless of disability

19
Academic Achievement
20
Elementary School
  • Focus decreasing dependence upon others and
    adapting to the natural environment
  • Motor Skills
  • Self-Help Skills
  • Social Skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Functional Academics

21
Adolescence
  • Personal independence and community participation
  • Social participation in community activities
  • Self-determination and Self Advocacy
  • Employment preparation
  • Must occur before graduation
  • Focus on opportunities in the general area
  • More specific as graduation approaches
  • Collaboration between school and adult services
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