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The Atlantic Slave Trade

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The Atlantic Slave Trade Ch. 20.3 Who financed Columbus's trip westward? Spain Which explorer realized that a new world had been discovered? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Atlantic Slave Trade


1
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Ch. 20.3

2
  • Who financed Columbus's trip westward?
  • Spain
  • Which explorer realized that a new world had
    been discovered?
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • How did the Spanish and Portuguese treat the
    Natives?
  • Badly- overworked them
  • A Catholic priest criticized the encomienda
    system. What was the encomienda system?
  • Harsh labor system for Native Americans
  • What did the priest suggest they use instead of
    Native Americans?
  • African Slaves

3
Demand for Labor
  • Sugar and tobacco farms required a large supply
    of workers.
  • Europeans planned to use Native Americans as
    cheap labor, but many died from disease and
    warfare.
  • Europeans in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the
    southern colonies of North America soon turned to
    Africa for workers.

4
Indian population declineTribe Illinois
5
African Slavery
  • African slavery began during the 7th century with
    the rise of Islam.
  • Slavery was justified with the belief that
    non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought and
    sold as slaves.
  • Between 650 and 1600, 4.8 million Africans
    (mostly prisoners and criminals) were bought and
    sold as slaves.
  • Later it became anyone they could capture.

6
Slaves had some mobility
  • In most African and Muslim lands, slaves had some
    legal rights and opportunities for advancement.
  • Some slaves occupied positions of power.
  • Served as generals in the army
  • Bought large estates and owned slaves of their
    own
  • Marry into the family they served and earn
    freedom
  • Slavery was NOT hereditary. Sons and daughters
    born to slaves were considered free persons.

7
Exploration of Africa
  • The first explorers were the Portuguese during
    the 1400s.
  • At first, the Portuguese were more interested in
    finding gold, but that changed with the
    colonization of the Americas.

8
  • European colonists forced the Native Americans to
    work in mines and plantations.
  • As the Natives began dying from disease and
    warfare, the Europeans became desperate for
    workers.

9
Indian slaves working the fields
10
Native American Small Pox Epidemic
11
Native American drawing of smallpox
  • Native American populations were decimated.
  • More than 1/3 of the total Native American
    population died from smallpox, measles or other
    European disease.

12
Advantages of using Africans
  • Many Africans had already been exposed to
    European disease and built up immunity to them.
  • Africans had experience in farming.
  • Africans had no familiar tribes in which to hide
    so they were less likely to escape.

13
Massive Enterprise of Slavery
  • Between 1500-1600 nearly 300,000 Africans were
    transported to the Americas.
  • Over the next 100 years, over 1.5 million more
    Africans were enslaved.
  • By the time, the Slave Trade ended 300 years
    later, nearly 10 million Africans had been sold
    into slavery.

14
Slaves in Africa waiting for transportation
15
Notice that the artist tries to dehumanize the
captives by not showing their faces.
16
  • As early as 1511, slaves were working in the
    copper mines on Hispaniola.
  • By 1650, nearly 300,000 Africans worked
    throughout Spanish America on plantations and in
    gold and silver mines.
  • This does not count the African slaves that the
    English settlers imported to America.

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18
Brazil
  • The Portuguese imported slaves to Brazil to work
    on the sugar plantations.
  • The demand for sugar in Europe was high, so more
    and more sugar plantations were created in
    Brazil.
  • During the 17th century, 40 of all slaves were
    being bought by Brazilian sugar plantation
    owners.
  • Brazil received 3.6 million more slaves than
    North America.

19
Sugar Cane Plantation 1850
20
Ledger of Sugar Shipments
21
Sugar Plantation, Caribbean 1823
22
Working in sugar cane fields
23
Caribbean
  • Slaves existed throughout the Caribbean as well.
  • Worked on sugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations
    in French, Dutch, and English colonies.

24
England
  • England came to dominate the Atlantic Slave Trade
    from 1609-1807.
  • During that time, the English transported 1.7
    million Africans to their colonies in the West
    Indies. (The West Indies is the same place as the
    the Caribbean.)
  • In all, nearly 400,000 Africans were imported to
    Great Britain's North American colonies.
  • Once in North America, slave population steadily
    grew due.
  • By 1830, the US had 2 million slaves.

25
  • Many African leaders had already been involved in
    selling slaves to Muslims and other African
    groups.
  • They saw little difference in selling to the
    Portuguese, Spaniards, and English.

26
  • Rather than travel inland, slave traders waited
    in port cities along the western and eastern
    coasts of Africa.
  • African merchants, captured Africans to sell into
    slavery.
  • They traded them for gold, guns, and other goods.

27
  • King Nzinga Mbemba of Africa, originally
    participated in the slave trade.
  • Later he realized the devastating effect on
    African societies.
  • Merchants are taking every day our natives, sons
    of the land and the sons of our noblemen and
    vassals and our relativesour country is being
    completely depopulated

28
Triangular Trade
  • Traders left from Europe with a ship loaded with
    goods to Africa.
  • Traders exchanged these goods for captured
    Africans.
  • Africans were then transported across the
    Atlantic Ocean and sold in the West Indies.
  • Merchants bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco to
    sell in Europe.

29
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30
Another triangular trade route
  • Merchants carried rum and other goods from the
    New England colonies to Africa.
  • They exchanged merchandise for Africans.
  • The traders took the slaves to the West Indies
    and sold them for sugar and molasses.
  • Then they sold these goods to rum producers in
    New England.

31
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32
Various other triangular trade routes existed
  • The Triangular trade route encompassed a network
    of trade routes criss-crossing the Northern and
    Southern colonies, the West Indies, England,
    Europe, and Africa.
  • The network carried a variety of traded goods.
  • Furs, fruit, tar, tobacco
  • Millions of African people

33
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34
The Middle Passage
  • The voyage that brought captured Africans to the
    West Indies and later to North and South America
    was known as the Middle Passage.
  • This was a difficult journey, characterized by
    cruelty, sickness, and death.

35
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36
Travel Conditions
  • Europeans crammed as many slaves as they could
    fit into the slave ships.
  • Africans were whipped and beaten by merchants.
  • Diseases swept through the vessel.
  • The smell of blood, sweat, and excrement filled
    the vessel.
  • Captives were surrounded by vomit and human
    waste.

37
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40
Olaudah Equiano
  • An 11 yr old African sold into slavery made this
    voyage known as the Middle Passage.
  • with the loathsome of the stench, and crying
    together, I became so sick and low that I was not
    able to eat

41
  • The stench of the hold while we were on the
    coast was so intolerably loathsome....The
    closeness of the place, and the heat of the
    climate, added to the number in the ship, which
    was so crowded that each had scarcely room to
    turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced
    copious perspirations, so that the air soon
    became unfit for respiration, from a variety of
    loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among
    the slaves, of which many died -- thus falling
    victims to the improvident avarice, as I may call
    it, of their purchasers.

42
The Middle PassageAmistad
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8nePOpkYwjY

43
Death
  • Many Africans died aboard the slave ships from
    disease or cruel treatment from merchants.
  • Many committed suicide by jumping into the ocean,
    rather than be enslaved.
  • 20 of Africans aboard each slave ships died
    during the brutal trip to the Americas.
  • The voyage typically lasted 3-4 months.
  • Many times, there would be more than 600 slaves
    on the ship.

44
Excerpt from the poem, The Sea is History, by
Derek Walcott
  • Where are your monuments, your battles, martyrs?
    Where is your tribal memory? Sirs, in that gray
    vault. The sea. The sea has locked them up. The
    sea is History.
  • Why is the sea history?

45
  • So many people died during the middle passage and
    were thrown into the sea. The sea has been
    personified in this verse as the holder of
    African history.
  • Where is the history of the people? It died with
    them in the sea. Where is their heritage and
    culture? It is dead in the sea.
  • When slaves died during the middle passage, their
    histories died with them.

46
Slavery in the Americas
  • Africans who survived the voyage entered a life
    of bondage.
  • Africans were auctioned off to the highest
    bidders.
  • A British minister who visited the slave market
    in Brazil said When a customer comes in, the
    slaves are turned before him such as wishes are
    handled by the purchaser in different parts,
    exactly as I have seen butchers feeling a calf.

47
Brazilian slave market
48
Slave market 1820 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
49
Mercado Modelo
  • Salvador (Savior), Bahia, Brazil was the first
    place to establish a slave market.
  • The actual slave trading went on underneath this
    market.
  • You can visit the actual slave market today in
    the center of Salvador in an area called
    Pelourinho (which means whipping post)

50
Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
  • The actual slave ships, called slavers entered
    in tunnels and canals to these slave trading
    markets.
  • After slave trading became illegal, many slaves
    were secretly smuggled in through these tunnels
    beneath the city.

51
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52
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53
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54
American Colonial Slave Market
55
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56
  • Slaves worked in mines, fields, or as domestic
    servants.
  • Worked long days on little food and suffered
    whippings and beatings.
  • Slavery was a lifelong condition as well as a
    hereditary one.

57
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59
  • Many Africans kept their heritage alive through
    songs and stories.
  • Sometimes they rebelled by breaking hoes,
    uprooting plants, or working slowly.
  • Thousands of slaves ran away.
  • Some revolted.

60
Excerpts from Negro Spiritual Slavery Chain 1865
  • Slavery chain done broke at last, broke?at last,
    broke at last,?Slavery chain done broke at
    last,?Going to praise God till I die
  • I did know my Jesus heard me,?'Cause de spirit
    spoke to me?And said, 'Rise my child, your
    chillun,?And you shall be free.

61
Brazilian Capoeira
  • Form of mixed martial arts/dance style that
    originated from Brazilian slaves.
  • They mixed the fighting styles of various tribes.
  • The slaves disguised their fight training as
    dances, which became known as Capoeira.

62
Brazilian Capoeira
63
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64
Brazilian Capoeira
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vZ8xxgFpK-NM

65
Slave revolt in Hispaniola
  • As early as 1522 about 20 slaves on Hispaniola
    attacked and killed several Spanish colonists.
  • In Colombia, enslaved Africans destroyed the town
    of Santa Maria in 1530.
  • In 1739, a group of slaves in South Carolina led
    an uprising called the Stono Rebellion.
  • They killed several colonists and engaged in
    battle with the local militia.
  • Many slaves died during the fighting.
  • Those who were captured were executed.

66
Stono Rebellion is also called Nat Turners
rebellion.
  • It occurred near the Stono River.
  • 60 whites were killed.
  • Nat Turner, the leader of the rebellion, was
    executed.
  • It was the largest pre-civil war slave rebellion.

67
Nathaniel (Nat) Turner
68
Effects
  • In Africa, numerous cultures lost generations of
    their young to slave traders.
  • Families were torn apart.
  • The slave trade also brought guns to Africa.
  • Warfare began spread throughout Africa as kings
    tried to conquer new territories with these new
    weapons.

69
  • Slaves worked endlessly in the Americas.
  • Slaves contributed greatly to the economic and
    cultural development of the Americas.
  • Without their back-breaking work, many colonies
    would not have survived.
  • Also brought their expertise in agriculture,
    especially in rice growing techniques.
  • They also brought art, music, and food.

70
Assignment
  • Write out these questions to answer about the
    following political cartoons
  • 1. Identify the cartoon caption or title (create
    on if there isnt)
  • 2. List the objects or people you see in the
    cartoon
  • 3. List 3 adjectives that describe the emotions
    portrayed in the cartoon
  • 4. Explain the message of the cartoon

71
(A) (B)
72
Assignment
  • Create a 4-6 box cartoon about the Atlantic slave
    trade experience
  • A cartoon is not always funny- in this case, it
    will be an illustration of any experience of the
    slave trade
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