Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World Trade Organization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World Trade Organization PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3f28a5-MjY3Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World Trade Organization

Description:

Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World Trade Organization Draft agreement Draft Text Three presentations Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:166
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 112
Provided by: JanHof9
Learn more at: http://vi.unctad.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World Trade Organization


1
Negotiations on trade facilitation at the World
Trade Organization
2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Draft agreement
5
Draft Text
6
Three presentations
  1. Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO
  2. Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  3. Trade Facilitation at the WTO

Jan.Hoffmann_at_UNCTAD.org Geneva, April 2011
7
Three presentations
  1. Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO
  2. Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  3. Trade Facilitation at the WTO

Jan.Hoffmann_at_UNCTAD.org Geneva, April 2011
8
Trade Facilitation Linking global trends and
what happens at the WTO
  • 10 global trends
  • Trade facilitation measures
  • Implications for development

9
Trade Facilitation Linking global trends and
what happens at the WTO
Loooong term
  • 10 global trends
  • Trade facilitation measures
  • Implications for development

10
1.Exports of manufactured goods
  • Today 80 of developing countries exports are
    manufactured goods, up from only 20 two
    decades ago

11
2.Globalized production
  • About 1/3 of global trade is intra-company trade
  • Around 30 of trade is trade in components and
    unfinished goods

12
Trade in intermediate goods
Source WTO, ITS, 2009
13
3.Increased security concerns
  • Security measures along the entire
    supply chain

14
4.New Geography of Trade
  • Especially the share of South-South trade has
    doubled since 1990

15
5. Regional integration
  • Increased regional and transit trade

16
6.Within Logistics expenditure
  • inventory holding decreases, and Transport
    expenditure increases

Data for USA, via DOT
17
7.Technologies
  • Containerization, shipping networks
  • Use of computers and Internet

18
8.Privatizations / concessions
  • Ports, Shipping lines, Railways, Airlines,
    Airports

19
9.Tariff reductions
  • For most developing countries exports,
    international transport costs are 2 to 3 times
    higher than Customs tariffs on imports in
    developed countries.

Source Miccio/ Perez 2002
20
10.Negotiations on trade facilitation at the
World Trade Organization
21
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

22
Trade Facilitation Linking global trends and
what happens at the WTO
  • 10 global trends
  • Trade facilitation measures
  • Implications for development

23
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

24
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

advance ruling
25
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

authorized traders
26
3. Security concerns
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Risk analysis
27
1. Manufactured goods 2. Globalized
production 3. Security concerns 4. Trade
geography
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Internet publication
28
5. Regional integration
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Regional approaches
29
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Separate release from clearance
30
Waiting trucks at a border
31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
(No Transcript)
40
(No Transcript)
41
(No Transcript)
42
7. Technologies
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Automated payments, Electronic documents
43
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Customs to accept commercial information,
information platforms
44
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

Transport costs and trade facilitation more
important than tariffs !
45
  • 1. Manufactured goods
  • 2. Globalized production
  • 3. Security concerns
  • 4. Trade geography
  • 5. Regional integration
  • 6. Logistics
  • 7. Technologies
  • 8. Privatizations
  • 9. Tariff reductions
  • 10. WTO negotiations

a response to trends in international trade,
transport, logistics and technologies !
46
Trade Facilitation Linking global trends and
what happens at the WTO
  • 10 global trends
  • Trade facilitation measures
  • Implications for development

47
Aid for Trade
48
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side effects
  • The introduction of ICTs by Customs may
    encourage smaller companies to also connect to
    the internet.

49
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • Capacity building raises the countrys
    overall human capital.

50
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • A framework for bank guarantees for transit
    trade may also generally improve the financial
    system.

51
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • A single window experience for trade may help
    to introduce single windows elsewhere.

52
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • Reforms of legal regimes that facilitate the
    use of electronic documents may also modernize
    other business practices.

53
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • Mechanisms to consult with stake holders may
    be beneficial for other policy decisions as
    well.

54
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • Increased transparency is good for good
    governance in general.

55
Trade and Transport Facilitation is not only good
for trade but also has other positive side
effects (cont.)
  • Are poor countries poor because of red tape?
  • OR
  • Is red tape the result of a lack of development?
  • ANSWER It is both

56
  • More income to finance trade facilitation
  • -gt Better trade facilitation
  • -gt More Trade
  • -gt More income to finance trade facilitation

57
  • Lower Transport Costs
  • -gt More trade
  • -gt Economies of scale
  • -gt Lower Transport Costs

58
  • Better services
  • -gt More trade
  • -gt More income to finance infrastructure
  • -gt Better services

59
The tipping point Start with Trade and
transport facilitation
  • Trade and transport facilitation is good for
    trade and for development
  • Development is good for trade and for trade and
    transport facilitation

60
Trade Facilitation Linking global trends and
what happens at the WTO
  • 10 global trends
  • Trade facilitation measures
  • Implications for development

Questions?
61
Three presentations
  1. Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO
  2. Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  3. Trade Facilitation at the WTO

Jan.Hoffmann_at_UNCTAD.org Geneva, April 2011
62
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

63
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

64
(No Transcript)
65
(No Transcript)
66
International rules and standards
  • IMO
  • ISO
  • UN-CEFACT
  • WCO
  • WTO

67
  • UN Lay-out Key
  • (UNECE Rec.1)

68
(No Transcript)
69
(No Transcript)
70
(No Transcript)
71
(No Transcript)
72
(No Transcript)
73
(No Transcript)
74
(No Transcript)
75
(No Transcript)
76
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

77
The Trade Transaction
GOODS
PAYMENT
78


Company B
Company A
Product
Retailers
Manufacturer
Supplier
Wholesalers
Customer
79
What do traders want ?
  • Simple and smooth processing of formalities
  • Means to allow goods to proceed promptly to their
    final destination. No longer itineraries, no
    unpacking, no delays
  • A single control point for all public services
  • Standard forms, assembled into a single bunch of
    documents, compatible with trade documents and
    transport contracts
  • Predictable and transparent rules and procedures

80
Data exchangein International Trade
  • 20 actors
  • gt 200 data elements
  • Manual procedures
  • Multiple data systems
  • gt 30 documents or messages.

81
Too many documents
  • Enquiry
  • Order
  • Despatch advice
  • Collection order
  • Payment order
  • Documentary credit
  • Forwarding instructions
  • Forwarder's invoice
  • Goods receipt
  • Air waybill
  • Road consignment note
  • Rail consignment note
  • Bill of lading
  • Freight invoice
  • Cargo manifest
  • Export licence
  • Exchange control doc.
  • Phytosanitary certificate
  • Veterinary certificate
  • Certificate of origin
  • Consular invoice
  • Dangerous goods declaration
  • Import licence
  • Customs delivery note
  • TIR carnet

82
  • PRE-ARRIVAL ARRIVAL INFORMATION
  • Pre-Arrival
  • Vessels characteristics or ships particulars,
    kind and tonnage of cargo, vessels ETA and
    masters requests must be notified to the Harbour
    Master Department every 48hrs, 24hrs or at least
    six hours prior to vessels arrival at the ports
    anchorage areas.
  • Arrival
  • The component of the committee that performs
    vessel clearance consists of 10 members from
    Harbour Master Department, Department of Customs
    and Excise, Immigration Police, National Shipping
    Agency and Broker, and Quarantine Authorities.
    Ten copies of cargo manifest are required to be
    provided to the Department of Customs and Excise.
  • Entry permit (arranged by official shipping
    agency),
  • Last port clearance certificate,
  • 15 lists of last port of call (at least 10 last
    ports),
  • 5 declarations of vessels arrival,
  • 10 import cargo manifests,
  • 3 bills of loading,
  • 2 transit cargo manifests,
  • 7 crew lists,
  • 7 passenger lists,
  • 3 lists of vessels provisions,
  • 3 lists of crew personal effects,
  • 1 copy of health declaration certificate,
  • 1 copy of vaccination list,
  • 1 copy of drugs and narcotic list,

83
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

84
Crossing the
BORDER
85
(No Transcript)
86
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

87
Role assigned to Customs
Revenue Collection of import taxes (duties
excise)
CUS TOMS F UNC T I ON
Protection of Economic Interests (domestic
production services industry)
Protection of society lthealth, safetygt (drug
trafficking, firearms, environment, counterfeit
etc.)
Economic development lttrade, investmentgt (trade
facilitation)
Security ltterrorismgt (shifting focus to supply
chain)
88
Functional linkages
89
Sequencing
90
Cooperation at the national level
  • Between the government institutions concerned by
    foreign trade Finance, Commerce, Transport
  • With the trading community importers and
    exporters
  • With service providers transport operators,
    banks, insurance companies

91
Cooperation at the regional level
92
Cooperation at the international level
93
Trade Facilitation An Introduction
Questions?
  • Scope of Trade facilitation
  • Traders main concerns
  • At the border
  • Key areas of work

94
Three presentations
  1. Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO
  2. Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  3. Trade Facilitation at the WTO

Jan.Hoffmann_at_UNCTAD.org Geneva, April 2011
95
From early 70s to 1996
  • Work of the UNECE and UNCTAD
  • UNECE Recommendations
  • UNCTAD FALPRO
  • UN International Symposium on Trade Efficiency
    (UNISTE) in Columbus, Ohio (1994)
  • Banking Insurance
  • Customs
  • Business Information for Trade
  • Transport
  • Telecommunications.

96
Existing non-compulsory international
instrumentsand best practices
  • Internationally-accepted customs and practices,
    negotiated by interested Governments through
    international organizations and private sector
    institutions WCO, ECE, IMO, ICC-UNCTAD
  • However Lack of effective implementation of the
    instruments.
  • Non-binding feature of these commitments.

97
Existing non-compulsory international
instrumentsand best practices
  • Internationally-accepted customs and practices,
    negotiated by interested Governments through
    international organizations and private sector
    institutions WCO, ECE, IMO, ICC-UNCTAD
  • However Lack of effective implementation of the
    instruments.
  • Non-binding feature of these commitments.

98
GATT 1994 (i.e. binding WTO)
  • Article V Freedom of Transit
  • Article VIII Fees and Formalities connected
    with IMP/EXPortation
  • Article X Publication and Administration of
    Trade Procedures
  • Agreement on the Implementation of Article VII
    (Customs Valuation)
  • Agreement on Preshipment Inspection
  • Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures
  • Agreement on Rules of Origin
  • Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
  • Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

99
Annex D - Modalities
  • Work on areas of particular interest to
    developing countries and LDCs
  • Identification of TF needs and priorities

100
Priorities
  • Imports/ Exports
  • Trade partners
  • Commodities
  • Mode of transport
  • User / provider
  • Transit / land-locked

101
Trade and Transport Facilitation is good
business for the countries
  • It tends to have a high rate of return
  • However, it requires
  • Infrastructure
  • Capacities
  • Initial investment
  • ... Which developing countries may not
    necessarily be able to assume easily

102
Needs
  • Capacity Building
  • Technologies
  • Financial assistance
  • Institutional change
  • Time

103
Negotiating position
  • Depends on
  • The priorities of my own trade and service
    providers
  • The needs to receive assistance or special and
    differential treatment
  • Taking into account Annex D

104
Country priorities
Costs of implementation, Needs
105
- Activesubj. to.T.A. , SD
Pro-active
Country priorities
- Accomodate
- - Passivesubj. to SD
Costs of implementation
106
- Activesubj. to.T.A. , SD
Pro-active
Country priorities
- Accomodate
- - Passivesubj. to SD
Costs of implementation
107
Recent situation
  • Negotiations in 2 key areas
  • Substantive provisions regarding the Articles
  • Special Differential Treatment and Technical
    Assistance Capacity Building
  • Draft Agreement in document TN/TF/W/165

108
Draft agreement
109
  • ARTICLE 1 PUBLICATION AND AVAILABILITY OF
    INFORMATION
  • ARTICLE 2 PRIOR PUBLICATION AND CONSULTATION
  • ARTICLE 3 ADVANCE RULINGS
  • ARTICLE 4 APPEAL PROCEDURES
  • ARTICLE 5 OTHER MEASURES TO ENHANCE
    IMPARTIALITY, NON-DISCRIMINATION AND TRANSPARENCY
  • ARTICLE 6 FEES AND CHARGES CONNECTED WITH
    IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION
  • ARTICLE 7 RELEASE AND CLEARANCE OF GOODS
  • ARTICLE 8 CONSULARIZATION
  • ARTICLE 9 BORDER AGENCY COOPERATION
  • ARTICLE 9 BIS DECLARATION OF TRANSHIPPED GOODS
  • ARTICLE 10 FORMALITIES CONNECTED WITH
    IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION
  • ARTICLE 11 FREEDOM OF TRANSIT
  • ARTICLE 12 CUSTOMS COOPERATION MECHANISM FOR
    TRADE FACILITATION AND CUSTOMSTRADE
    COMPLIANCE
  • ARTICLE 13 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  • ARTICLE 14 NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON TRADE
    FACILITATION
  • ARTICLE 15 PREAMBLE/CROSS-CUTTING MATTERS
  • TRANSITIONAL / SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT
    PROVISIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRY MEMBERS AND
    LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRY MEMBERS

110
(No Transcript)
111
Three presentations
  1. Linking global trends and what happens at the WTO
  2. Trade Facilitation An Introduction
  3. Trade Facilitation at the WTO

Thank You!
Jan.Hoffmann_at_UNCTAD.org Geneva, April 2011
About PowerShow.com