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Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology

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Migration begins by the 4 week of gestation in cow and human. Germ ... Efferent Ducts (Vas Efferentia) Epididymis. Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology


1
Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology
  • Lec 5 Embryogenesis of the Pituitary and Sexual
    Development

2
Development of the Pituitary Gland
Infundibulum
Brain
Rathkes Pouch
Stomodeum
3
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4
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5
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6
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7
Germ Cell Migration
Migration begins by the 4 week of gestation in
cow and human.
8
Migration from endoderm through mesoderm.
9
In birds the migration is via the blood stream.
10
Fetal Kidneys
  • Pronephros
  • regresses
  • Mesonephros
  • portions of reproductive tract
  • Metenephros
  • Adult kindney and urinary ducts

11
Development of Mesenephros and Metenephros
12
Development of Mesenephros and Metenephros
Early Development Flash Movie
http//www.ansci.wisc.edu/jjp1/as434/powerpoint/fa
07/early_dev.swf
Requires the free flash player which can be
downloaded from www.adobe.com
13
Jost Experiments
Mesonephric Ducts (Wolffian Ducts)
Paramesonephric Ducts (Mullerian Ducts)
Testis
Ovary
Epididymis
Epididymis
Oviduct
Vas Deferens
Seminal Vesicles
Uterus
14
Sex Determination The Jost Paradigm
Chromosomal Sex Gonadal Sex Phenotypic Sex
15
Sex Determination The Jost Paradigm
Chromosomal Sex Gonadal Sex Phenotypic Sex
16
Chromosomal Sex
  • Single Pair of sex chromosomes
  • mammals, some but not all vertebrates
  • Sex is environmentally determined
  • sea worms, fish, reptiles
  • Multiple sex chromosomes
  • invertebrates, insects, reptiles
  • Haplodiploidy
  • bees, spiders

17
Chromosomal Sex
  • A. Drosophila
  • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
  • X or XY or XO Male
  • XX or XXX or XXY Female

18
Chromosomal Sex
  • A. Drosophila
  • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
  • X or XY or XO Male
  • XX or XXX or XXY Female
  • B. Human (mammals)
  • XY or XXY or XXYY or XXXY Male (testis)
  • XX or XXX Female (ovary)
  • XO Female with incomplete ovarian development
  • XXY or XXYY or XXXY or XXXXY testis but
    impaired sperm production

19
Chromosomal Sex
  • A. Drosophila
  • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
  • X or XY or XO Male
  • XX or XXX or XXY Female
  • B. Human (mammals)
  • XY or XXY or XXYY or XXXY Male (testis)
  • XX or XXX Female (ovary)
  • XO Female with incomplete ovarian development
  • XXY or XXYY or XXXY or XXXXY testis but
    impaired sperm production
  • C. Conclusion
  • The gene that controls testicular differentiation
    is on the Y chromosome in mammals.

20
Human X and Y Chromosomes
X
Y
21
The Y Chromosome
A. Region coding for testicular development
  • Short arm of Y chromosome
  • H-Y Antigen
  • no longer believed to be involved
  • SRY
  • Codes for a DNA binding protein
  • acts as a transcription factor
  • Causes
  • primary sex chord (seminiferous tubule)
    development
  • Development of Sertoli Cells
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone production by Sertoli
    Cells
  • absence of SRY
  • 2nd sex chords (egg nests) develop

22
The Y Chromosome Cont.
  • B. Other genes on the Y chromosome
  • Spermatogenesis
  • androgen production
  • long bone growth

23
SRY and Birds
  • Birds
  • females ZW, males ZZ
  • W chromosome determines sex
  • SRY is found on the Z chromosome !
  • SRY is not the only sex determining gene in
    animals

24
Gonadal Sex
25
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
XY Male
Testes develop
26
Testicular Development
Mesonephric Tubules
Mesonephric Duct (Wolffian Duct)
Rete Tubules
Mullerian Duct
Tunica Albuginea
Undifferentiated Sex Chords
27
Mesonephric Tubules
Rete Tubules
Wolffian Duct
  • Primary, Epithelial or
  • Medullary Sex Chords
  • Primordial germ cells (gonocytes)
  • Pre-Sertoli Cells

Mullerian Duct
Tunica Albuginea
28
Primary Sex Chords in Fetal Testis
Pre-Sertoli
Gonocyte
29
Hormonal Sex
30
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
XY Male
Testes develop
31
Wolffian Duct Cells
Nucleus
T
Testis
T
TR
32
Rete Tubules
Efferent Ducts (Vas Efferentia)
Epididymis
Seminiferous Tubules
Vas Deferens
Tunica Albuginea
33
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
XY Male
Testes develop
34
Vas efferentia
35
Female Development
No TDF
Testes Determining Factor
XX Female
36
Ovarian Development
Regressing Tubules
Mullerian Duct
Primary or Epithelial Sex Chords
Future Ovarian Cortex
Wolffian Duct
37
Regressing Tubules
Mullerian Duct
Regressing Epithelial Sex Chords
Future Ovarian Cortex
Regressing Wolffian Duct
38
Regressing Tubules
Primordial Follicles
Mullerian Duct
Regressing Epithelial Sex Chords
Future Ovarian Cortex
Regressing Wolffian Duct
Secondary or Cortical Sex Chords (egg nests)
39
Primordial Follicles
Mullerian Duct
Ovarian Medulla
Ovarian Cortex
Regressing Wolffian Duct
40
2nd Sex Chords in Fetal Ovary
41
Development of the Uterus, Cervix and Vagina
Mullerian Duct
42
Fused Mullerian Duct
Hymen
43
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44
Reproductive tract develops outside
the peritoneum!
Broad Ligament Development (transverse anterior
section)
Ovary
Regressing Wolffian Duct
Mullerian Duct
45
Ovary
Regressing Wolffian Duct
Mullerian Duct
46
(Posterior Transverse Section)
Genital Fold (Future Broad Ligament)
Regressing Wolffian Duct
Mullerian Duct
47
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
No TDF
XX Female
XY Male
Testes develop
Ovaries Develop
No AMH
No Testosterone
Sertoli cells secrete anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
AMH causes leydig cells to differentiate
Degeneration of Mullerian duct
Mullerian ducts become the oviducts, uterus,
cervix and part of the vagina
Degeneration of Wolffian duct
Testosterone
Development of male duct system
48
Phenotypic Sex
49
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
XY Male
Testes develop
Sertoli cells secrete anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
AMH causes leydig cells to differentiate
Degeneration of Mullerian Duct
Testosterone
Development of male duct system
50
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
XY Male
Testes develop
Sertoli cells secrete anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
AMH causes leydig cells to differentiate
Degeneration of Mullerian Duct
Testosterone
Development of male duct system
51
Wolffian Duct Cells
Nucleus
T
Testis
T
TR
52
Accessory Sex Glands and External Genitalia Cells
Nucleus
T
Testis
D
T
DR
5??- Reductase
Prostate, Cowpers Gland
53
Significance of DHT
  • Androgen receptor has a higher affinity for DHT
  • Can get effects with low levels of circulating
    testosterone
  • Secondary sex characteristic tissue in the male
    expresses 5a-reductase

54
External Genitalia Differentiation
55
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56
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57
Testis Determining Factor (SRY gene product)
No TDF
XX Female
XY Male
Testes develop
Ovaries Develop
No AMH
No Testosterone
Sertoli cells secrete anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
AMH causes leydig cells to differentiate
Degeneration of Mullerian duct
Mullerian ducts become the oviducts, uterus,
cervix and part of the vagina
Degeneration of Wolffian duct
Testosterone
Development of male duct system
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