Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Disabilities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Disabilities


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs): Characteristics ... Period of using echolalia. Delayed. Immediate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Disabilities

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe Disabilities
  • SPED 417
  • 7/15/02

Wetherby Prizant, 2000
Wetherby Prizant, 2000
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and Pervasive
Developmental Disorders (PDDs) Characteristics
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders that have 3 core
  • Impairments in social interaction
  • Impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication
  • Restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior
  • Joint attention appears to be a fundamental
    component of etiology of autism
  • Impairments in the capacity for symbol use
  • Approximately 50 of individuals with autism do
    not develop functional speech

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and Pervasive
Developmental Disorders (PDDs) Characteristics
  • Use of primitive presymbolic gestures lack of
    conventional gestures such as pointing.
  • Period of using echolalia
  • Delayed
  • Immediate
  • May be single word or phrase which may serve as a
    label for a situation or event. Learn meaning of
    phrases by finding out how they work.
  • Gestalt processing
  • For individuals with speech a disturbance of the
    pragmatics of language use is prominent
  • Cognitive impairment
  • About 50 of individuals with autism function in
    the same IQ range as individuals with mental
  • 25 develop communicative language before the age
    of 5 years have less severe disabilities.
  • 25 have typical intelligence function
    independently (Beukelman Mirenda, 1998).

Services A Major Issue
  • Incidence
  • Incidence of autism has increased dramatically
  • Initially thought occur in approximately 5-15 per
    10,000 births.
  • Now thought to occur at a rate of 1 in 1000
    (Mundy Stella, 2000) possibly 1 in 500
    depending on diagnostic criteria.
  • Illinois reported increase from 317 new cases in
    1991 to 2,305 in 1997 (Fienberg Vacca, 2000).

Services A Major Issue
  • No Consensus on Etiology
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Various combination of affected genes however
    what combinations trigger the condition is
  • Neurobiological/chemical
  • Difference in brain chemistry
  • Shortened brain stem as well as other
    abnormalities in brain structures.
  • MMR Vaccine
  • Environmental toxins
  • Diet/nutrition

Services A Major Issue
  • No Consensus on Intervention
  • Lovaas
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Discrete Trial
  • Treatment Education of Autistic Related
    Communication Handicapped Children
  • PECS
  • Picture Exchange Communication System
  • Greenspan
  • Floor Time
  • Sensory Integration
  • New emphasis on integrating approaches

Services A Major Issue
  • Age of Diagnosis
  • Services provided prior up to age 3 may not be
    provided with special education.
  • e.g., Lovaas (40,000/year)
  • Litigation
  • Family -Centered Paradigm
  • Access to information
  • Increase in due process hearings
  • Policy Implications
  • How to plan programs
  • IDEA ignores cost issues for specific children
    (Fienberg Vacca, 2000).
  • What is appropriate?

Severe and Multiple Disabilities
  • IDEA Sec.300.7
  • Multiple Disabilities
  • Concomitant impairments (such as mental
    retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthoped
    ic impairment, etc.), the combination of which
    causes such severe educational needs that they
    cannot be accommodated in special education
    programs solely for one of the impairments.
  • Curriculum
  • What to teach
  • Goals
  • Ecological Inventory

Severe DisabilitiesTop Down Approach
See domestic domain handout example
Severe Disabilities Curriculum
  • Ecological Inventory Environments
  • school
  • home
  • community
  • work
  • OUTCOMES Access To General Education Curriculum
  • SAME
  • see outcome handout
  • Assessment
  • Curriculum based assessment
  • Illinois Alternative Assessment
  • Student with severe disabilities are not likely
    to participate in ISAT
  • Based on Illinois Learning Standards
  • http//

Severe Disabilities
  • Instructional Program Objectives
  • Selection
  • needs
  • priorities
  • functional and meaningful outcomes
  • appropriate for age
  • Quality
  • Observable
  • Appropriate condition statements
  • Appropriate criterion statements
  • allow for assessing/instructing in environment
    where skill would typically be performed.
  • IEP activity
  • Case study activity

Case StudyMarc
  • Marc is a 14 year old student who is ambulatory
    but has physical limitations including poor
    muscle control in upper and lower extremities as
    well as poor fine motor skills. He has very
    limited speech using 3-5 words to request
    favorite snacks and enjoys watching T.V. and
    listening to music. His family would like him to
    become as independent as possible and are hoping
    for placement in a group home by age 21 however
    he is dependent on his family for all daily
    living requirements. The group home requires
    residents to maintain their rooms, have good
    mealtime and grooming and hygiene skills, and
    participate in community leisure activities.
  • Identify an outcome
  • Write a goal
  • Write two objectives for this goal.

Severe Disabilities Curriculum Issues
  • IDEA 97 Access to the General Curriculum
  • participation
  • progress
  • align IEP goals with general curriculum standards
  • statewide assessment
  • improve outcomes of students with disabilities
  • Effect of district/state policy for teachers and
    students with severe disabilities
  • IEP Assessment

Severe Disabilities Transition
  • IDEA 97
  • Coordinated set of transition services at age 14
  • Rehabilitation Act (1974)
  • Students with severe disabilities entitled to
    continuing services when they leave school
  • Supported employment
  • Continued educational programs
  • Educators Role
  • work experience work related behaviors
  • Work interests and preferences
  • Supports to ensure success