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Houston Geological Society

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Oil is formed under very high pressure. The pressure caused hair-line fractures to ... (pinch-out), reservoir quality (diagenesis), or removal (erosional unconformity) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Houston Geological Society


1
HGS Petroleum Exploration Methods
What Geologists and Geophysicists do to find oil
and gas
Cerro Azul 4 blow-out, Veracruz, Mexico
February 1916
2
HGS Petroleum Exploration Methods
Part II Petroleum System Migration
3
Migration Oil and gas migrates from source
rock into reservoir rock
Micro-fractures
  • Oil is formed under very high pressure
  • The pressure caused hair-line fractures to
  • develop in the overlying rocks
  • Allowing the oil to migrate

Reservoir Rock
Source Rock
4
Migration Oil and gas migrates through
reservoir rock to trap
  • If migrating oil encountered a reservoir rock it
  • preferentially flowed through this conduit
  • If it led straight to the surface,
  • the petroleum escaped
  • If the reservoir was folded or faulted,
  • the oil may have been trapped.

oil gas seeps
Reservoir Rock
trapped oil gas
5
HGS Petroleum Exploration Methods
Part II Petroleum System Trap
6
Traps
  • Anticlinal - Rock layers folded into a dome
  • Stratigraphic - Rock layers changing from a
    good reservoir to non-reservoir due to change
    in rock type (pinch-out), reservoir quality
    (diagenesis), or removal (erosional
    unconformity)
  • Fault - Offset of rocks such that oil and
    gas accumulates in reservoir rock

7
Anticlines are folds in the earth
Oil accumulates in anticlines
Oil is lighter than water and gas is even
lighter. This phenomenon creates the basic
petroleum trap
8
Trap Oil and gas migrates from source rock,
through reservoir rock to trap
9
HGS Petroleum Exploration Methods
Part II Petroleum System Seal
10
Seal Seal rock prevents petroleum from
leaking out of a trap
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