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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
AMR WFSA WFIPAcronym Central
  • Wilderness Fire Resource Advisor
  • March 6, 2007
  • Mike Frary
  • Assistant State Fire Management Officer
  • Fuels Fire Use
  • USDI - Bureau of Land Management
  • Colorado State Office

3
  • Fire Managers have been using the appropriate
    management response on wildfires for many years,
    often without knowing it, and almost always
    without calling it AMR.
  • For example, the 1000 am policy was the
    appropriate response for its time, because
    policy did not allow otherwise.

4
The appropriate management response is exactly
that taking the actions (suppression or
otherwise) that are appropriate given the laws,
policy, socio-political situation, and
environmental conditions that are in effect at a
given point of time.
5
What Is A Wildland Fire?
  • Wildland Fire Any non-structure fire that
    occurs in the wildland. Three distinct types of
    wildland fire have been defined and include
    wildfire, wildland fire use and prescribed fire.
  • Wildland Fire Use (WFU) The application of the
    appropriate management response to
    naturally-ignited wildland fires to accomplish
    specific resource management objectives in
    predefined designated areas outlined in Fire
    Management Plans.

6
  • Under current interagency fire policy, there are
    three types of fire.
  • Prescribed fire is a planned management action
    for resource benefit.
  • WFU and wildfires are both unplanned ignitions
    managed by the Appropriate Management Response
    (AMR). The management objective for these
    naturally ignited fire use fires is resource
    benefit. The management objective for wildfires
    regardless of ignition source is suppression. The
    tactics used for all types of fires may be
    similar and considered AMR.

7
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8
Common AMR Strategies and Tactics and Tools
9
Full Perimeter Control
  • This is the most commonly used strategy on
    wildland fires. Control lines are constructed
    around the entire perimeter of the fire. Roads,
    rivers and other barriers can be used in
    conjunction with constructed lines. In the end a
    physical barrier exists completely around the
    fire.

10
Point Protection
  • This strategy involves protecting specific points
    from the fire while not actively trying to line
    the entire fire edge. Points being protected may
    be communities, individual homes, areas of high
    resource value, etc.

11
Large Scale Burnout
  • This strategy involves selecting line locations
    or barriers that offer the best likelihood of
    successfully holding a fire, and then burning out
    the fuels in between the original fire and the
    planned control line. There are no limitations
    on the size of a burnout.

12
Monitoring
  • This strategy may be used for many reasons.
    Depending on the conditions within the fire
    environment, the incident commander may determine
    that no action needs to be taken other than
    observing the fire spread on a regular basis.

13
Fuel Breaks
  • Fuel breaks may be totally devoid of vegetation
    or may be shaded, in which some large over-story
    trees remain. Fuel breaks are often established
    prior to a fire season or fire event. The
    presence of a fuel break may serve as a control
    line, as part of point protection or as a trigger
    point in monitoring.

14
Use of Natural or Artificial Barriers
  • Any type natural (rivers, streams, cliff lines,
    rock slides, etc.) or artificial (roads, dams
    agricultural fields, etc) barriers may be used as
    a component of any of the AMR strategies.

15
Community Treatments
  • A slight twist on point protection, community
    treatments may involve actions within a
    sub-division or community to protect homes
    without actually building lines or conducting
    hose lays.

16
Slowing/Delaying Fire Spread
  • This involves using any of a variety of actions
    to slow a fire spread and buy additional time in
    anticipation of a weather change, arrival of
    resources or other reasons.

17
Minimum Impact Tactics
  • Any of a wide range of actions to minimize the
    appearance of fire management tactics. Includes
    such actions as flush cutting stumps,
    camouflaging stumps and bucked logs, dragging
    brush out of site of trails, etc. Several
    regions have developed guides and these should be
    utilized for additional assistance and direction.

18
Wildland Fire Use
  • Managing a wildland fire for resource benefit is
    the definition of wildland fire use.
  • The management of a Fire Use fire may involve any
    or all of the tactics previously mentioned.
  • Additional evaluation of suitability for fire use
    is required within certain time frames of
    ignition.

19
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20
  • DECISION MAKING
  • Wildland Fire Situation Analysis WFSA

21

The WFSA Process What are the reasons to
initiate a WFSA?
  • Wildland Fire escapes Initial Attack
  • Wildland Fire Use escapes or exceeds prescription
    parameters
  • Prescribed Fire escapes or exceeds prescription
    parameters

22
The WFSA Process
  • Reasonable alternatives identified, analyzed and
    evaluated
  • Evaluation criteria established
  • Alternatives considered that minimize sum of
    estimated suppression cost resource damage
  • WFSA revised as conditions change

23
What are the common complaints about the doing a
WFSA?
  • Occupies key personnel during critical period
  • Too complicated
  • Cant be done in a timely manner
  • Too much un-needed or repeated documentation
  • Inputs are arbitrary and capricious

24
What are the common complaints about the doing a
WFSA?
  • Occupies key personnel during critical period
    (Part of the job, get over it!)
  • Too complicated (see 1!)
  • Cant be done in a timely manner (Good now is
    better than perfect later)
  • Too much un-needed or repeated documentation
    (Remember who your boss is)
  • Inputs are arbitrary and capricious (Your and
    the resource staffs expertise and professional
    judgment is needed to fill in the gaps and is the
    best available information at the time)

25
Why do a WFSA?
  1. It is the document that gives guidance and
    direction to the Incident Commander from the line
    officer
  2. It documents the decision thought process,
    including alternatives analyzed but not selected
  3. It documents incident priorities and constraints
  4. It documents that financial consideration was
    given in selecting the alternative

26
Extended Attack
Prepare WFSA
Implement Action
Objectives Met?
Revise WFSA
No
Yes
Close Out and/or After Action Review
27
FEDERAL FIRE AVIATION OPERATIONS 2004 ACTION
PLAN
  • Produce WFSA alternatives that display a full
    range of appropriate management response options.
    All alternatives must be developed with strong
    emphasis on cost accountability based on the
    values to be protected, with due consideration
    given to a minimum cost alternative.

28
Approval and Certification Thresholds
  • USFS Threshold Value
  • District Ranger lt 2M
  • Forest Supervisor gt2M - lt10M, or
  • Forest Supervisor Type 1 Team, or
  • Forest Supervisor Area Command
  • Regional Forester gt10M - lt50M
  • Chief gt50M
  • DOI (NPS - BLM BIA - FWS)
  • First Level Line Officer lt2M
  • Regional or State Director gt2M - lt5M
  • Director gt5M

29
Approval and Certification Timeframes
  • Initial WFSA must be approved prior to initiation
    of a new strategy and within 12 hours of a fire
    escaping initial action.
  • Chief and Deputy Chiefs, Regional Foresters and
    Area Director Certification of the WFSA must be
    completed with in 24 hours of escape of initial
    action, unless agreed to otherwise.

30
Take Home
  • The WFSA process requires a team effort, build
    the team prior to the fire
  • Financial analysis has error, the objective is to
    make that error consistent in all of the
    alternatives
  • Line officers need to be engaged before, during,
    and after the WFSA process

31
Why Do We Need Fire Use?
  • Tool to treat land management objectives
  • Recognizes the natural role fire plays in an
    ecosystem
  • More accurately portrays actual or historic fire
    intensity and severity
  • To not do it postpones a future, possibly worse
    and damaging fire
  • Reduced risk to firefighters

32
Policy Statements Relevant To Wildland Fire Use
33
Federal Fire Policy (FFP) Says
  • Wildland fire use, is a direct component of
    wildland fire management. It is a management
    action equal to wildfire suppression and thus,
    constitutes an emergency action. It receives
    consideration, management attention, and
    management policies equal to wildfire
    suppression,.

34
WFU Sideboards
  • Only one management objective will be applied to
    a wildland fire. Wildland fires will either be
    managed for resource benefits or suppressed. A
    wildland fire cannot be managed for both
    objectives concurrently.
  • If two wildland fires converge, they will be
    managed as a single wildland fire.

35
  • Human caused wildland fires will be suppressed
    in every instance and will not be managed for
    resource benefits.
  • Once a wildland fire has been managed for
    suppression objectives, it may never be managed
    for resource benefit objectives.

36
  • Wildland fire use is the result of a natural
    event. The Land/Resource Management Plan, or the
    Fire Management Plan, will identify areas where
    the strategy of wildland fire use is suitable.

37
  • The Wildland Fire Implementation Plan (WFIP) is
    the tool that examines the available response
    strategies to determine if a fire is being
    considered for wildland fire use.

38
  • When a fire designated for wildland fire use is
    no longer achieving the intended resource
    management objectives and/or mitigation actions
    have failed, the fire will be declared a
    wildfire. Once a wildfire, it cannot be returned
    to wildland fire use status.

39
WFU IS
  • An Appropriate Management Response.
  • Not a hands-off or let-burn philosophy.
  • Not a method to do away with wildland fire
    suppression actions.
  • Not a prescribed burn.

40
  • Not restricted to the back 40 or Wilderness
    type setting.
  • Not implemented automatically. The Fire
    Management Plan sets prescriptive criteria and
    the Wildland Fire Implementation Plan determines
    the specific actions to be taken.

41
  • Not limited by land ownership or agency
    boundaries.
  • Not always the answer to large fire cost
    containment.

42
The Land Management Plan Must
  • Adequately address policy
  • Provide resource management direction as it
    relates to fire
  • Allow for a full range of management direction
  • Be broad, and not overly restrictive, more on
    this later
  • Be dynamic and adaptable to changing conditions
  • Be realistic and based upon the best information
    and science available

43
The Fire Management Plan Must
  • Be tiered to the LMP
  • Be designed to implement resource management
    direction as specified in the LMP
  • Allow for a full range of fire management options
    where applicable
  • Describe a specific set of conditions
    (prescription/triggers) that determine fire
    management options
  • Be dynamic and adaptable to changing conditions
  • Be understandable and usable by the implementers

44
Common Pitfalls
  • Overly restrictive parameters
  • Areas or polygons that are too small. No wiggle
    room
  • No qualified personnel on unit
  • No up-front education of internal and external
    partners
  • Lack of focus and letting adverse conditions
    sneak up on you
  • Allowing long-term events to wear you down

45
THINK BIG
46
Tips For Getting Started
  • Inform and educate agency and partners.
  • Start getting folks trained up and get them
    experience. NOW!!!
  • Ask for assistance from those who have been
    through the drill.
  • Involve the troops.
  • Dont be overly aggressive and bite-off too
    much at the start.
  • Really get to know your fuels fire behavior.
    Every place is a bit unique.
  • BE PATIENT WFU is a different mind-set!

47
Wildland Fire Use
  • The Implementation Phase!

48
THE FOUNDATION
49
SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
50
The WFU Guide!
  • Deals Strictly With Wildland Fire Use!
  • Prescribed Fire Is No Longer Included In The
    Guide.
  • Uses the Relative Risk Rating Rather than a
    Complexity Rating!

51
The WFU Guide!
  • Revises timeframe requirements for completion of
    Stages 1-3.
  • Allows for more flexibility in who manages a
    particular incident based on complexity.

52
2006
Appropriate Management Response
Suppression Response
Successful
Unsuccessful
Successful
Wildland Fire Situation Analysis
Stage I Initial Fire Assessment, Periodic Fire
Assessment
Fire Ignition, FMP approved
Unsuccessful
Stage II Short-Term Implementation
Actions, Periodic Fire Assessment
Unsuccessful
Successful
Stage III Long-Term Implementation
Actions, Periodic Fire Assessment
53
WFIP Stage Maximum Completion Timeframe
WFIP Stage I 8 hours after confirmed fire detection and Strategic Fire Size-Up
WFIP Stage II 48 hours after need indicated by Wildland Fire Use Management Needs Assessment
WFIP Stage III 7 days after need indicated by Wildland Fire Use Management Needs Assessment
Periodic Fire Assessment As part of all stages and on assigned frequency thereafter
54
WFIP Stage Minimum Planning Qualifications Minimum Implementation Qualifications
WFIP Stage I (Stand-Alone Plan) Unit Duty Officer Incident Commander Type 4 (ICT4) Must have local knowledge or prior experience in implementing WFIPs and managing WFU events.
WFIP Stage II (Stand Alone Plan) Fire Use Manager Type 2 (FUM2) Incident Commander Type 4 (ICT4) Must have local knowledge or prior experience in implementing WFIPs and managing WFU events.
WFIP Stage III (Stand Alone Plan) Fire Use Manager Type 2 (FUM2) Incident Commander Type 4 (ICT4) Must have local knowledge or prior experience in implementing WFIPs and managing WFU events.
55
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56
We Know The Concepts ButHow Do We Implement
Wildland Fire Use?
57
IGNITION OCCURS!
  • Step 1 Initial attack resources locate the
    fire, complete the strategic fire size up and
    determine fire cause. Information is relayed to
    Dispatch and the Unit Duty Officer.

58
  • Step 2 Initial attack Incident Commander (IC)
    and the Unit Duty Officer make the initial
    recommendation if the fire is a suitable
    candidate for fire use, based upon Fire
    Management Plan criteria and local conditions
    such as fuels, weather, topography, etc

59
  • Step 3 IC Unit Duty Officer document
    determination on the Fire Size-Up Card. If
    Suitable, Go to Stage 1

60
WFIP STAGE 1
  • Purpose
  • Document the fire situation.
  • Describe initial management actions.
  • Set the initial periodic assessment schedule as
    the preliminary stage of the planning process.
  • Agency Administrator decision.

61
  • WFIP Stage One Content
  • Strategic Fire Size-Up
  • Fire name
  • Fire number
  • Jurisdictions)
  • Administrative Unit(s)
  • Fire Management Unit (FMU)
  • Geographic Area(s)
  • Management Code(s)
  • Start date/time
  • Discovery date/time
  • Current size
  • Location
  • Cause
  • Fuel model(s)/conditions
  • Current weather
  • Forecasted weather
  • Current Observed fire behavior

The Unit Duty Officer, Qualified Representative
or Fire Use Manager Complete the Stage One WFIP
In Concert with the Agency Administrator or
Delegated Acting.
62
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63
Wildland Fire Relative Risk Assessment Step 1
Determining Values
Determine Natural/Cultural Resource Concerns for
the area to be affected by the fire. Rationale
Determine Social/Economic Concerns for the area
to be affected by the fire. Rationale Determin
e Location of Fire to Values for the area to be
affected by the fire. Rationale
Connect the left and right values with a line.
Read the Value Assessment where this line crosses
the appropriate Location of Fire to Values line.

64
Wildland Fire Relative Risk Assessment Step 2
Determining Hazard
Determine Fire Regime Condition Class for the
area to be affected by the fire. Rationale Det
ermine Potential Fire Size for the area to be
affected by the fire. Rationale Determine
Fire Behavior for the area to be affected by the
fire. Rationale
Connect the left and right values with a line.
Read the Hazard Assessment where this line
crosses the appropriate Fire Behavior line.
65
Wildland Fire Relative Risk Assessment Step 3
Determining Probability
Determine Time of Season for the area to be
affected by the fire. Rationale Determine
Seasonal Severity for the area to be affected by
the fire. Rationale Determine Barriers to
Fire Spread for the area to be affected by the
fire. Rationale
Connect the left and right values with a line.
Read the Probability Assessment where this line
crosses the appropriate Barriers to Fire Spread
line.
66
Wildland Fire Relative Risk Assessment Step 4
Determining Wildland Fire Relative Risk
Determine Values from Step1. Rationale Determ
ine Hazard from Step 2. Rationale Determine
Probability from Step 3. Rationale
Connect the left and right values with a line.
Read the Relative Risk where this line crosses
the appropriate Probability line.
67
Planning Needs Assessment Chart
68
Fire Use Manager Decision Chart
69
  • DECISION CRITERIA CHECKLIST (GO-NO GO)
  • DECISION ELEMENT
    YES NO
  • Is there a threat to life, property, or public
    and ___ ___
  • firefighter safety that cannot be mitigated?
  • Are potential effects on cultural and natural
    ___ ___
  • resources outside the range of desired effects?
  • Are relative risk indicators and/or risk
  • assessment results unacceptable to the
    ___ ___
  • appropriate Agency Administrator?
  • Is there other proximate fire activity that
    limits ___ ___
  • or precludes successful management of this
    fire?
  • Are there other Agency Administrator issues that
    ___ ___
  • preclude wildland fire use?

70
DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY ARE REQUIRED!
  • Anytime an ICT4 or Fire Use Manager is assigned!
  • Anytime there is a change in ICs or FUMAs!
  • Anytime an Agency Administrator is delegating
    authority for amending the WFIP or to perform the
    periodic assessments to another individual!

71
  • PERIODIC ASSESSMENT
  • Done in coordination with the
  • Agency Administrator
  • Done at all Stages of a WFU
  • Includes The Following
  • Relative Risk Assessment
  • Planning Needs Assessment
  • Fire Use Manager Decision
  • Decision Criteria Checklist (GO/ NO GO)

72
PERIODIC ASSESSMENT
  • The assessment frequency is how often the
    assessment will be reviewed.
  • This frequency can be daily, but each unit can
    determine the appropriate assessment frequency.
  • Units must identify standards and rationale for
    establishing assessment frequency, especially
    "step-up" and "step-down" actions.
  • Confirms the adequacy of the current planning
    stage.

73
WFIP STAGE 2
  • Purpose above Stage 1
  • Specify management objectives.
  • Document the fire situation and associated areas
    of concerns.
  • Identify management actions and estimated costs.
  • Document the Periodic Fire Assessment.

74
  • WFIP Stage Two Content
  • Objectives
  • Fire Situation
  • -Safety considerations
  • -External concerns
  • -Environmental concerns
  • -Threats
  • -Current and predicted fire behavior
  • -Current and predicted weather
  • Management actions (include
  • description of action and
  • expected duration)
  • Estimated costs
  • Periodic fire assessment

The Fire Use Manager Completes the Stage Two WFIP
In Concert with the Agency Administrator or
Delegated Acting.
75
WFIP STAGE 3
  • Purpose
  • Document a risk assessment and provide
    implementation actions necessary for management
    of a wildland fire to accomplish identified
    objectives over a potentially long-duration.

76
WFIP STAGE 3
  • Provide a definition of the acceptable management
    limits of multiple fires, or fire complexes
    represented by the Maximum Manageable Area (MMA).
  • Consider long-term fire behavior predictions and
    risk assessments.
  • Identify all known threats from the fire and
    address operational actions to mitigate or
    eliminate those threats.

77
  • WFIP Stage Three Content
  • Objectives and Risk Assessment Considerations
  • -Natural and Cultural resource objectives
  • -Constraints
  • MMA Definition and Maps
  • Weather season/drought discussion and prognosis
  • Long-Term Risk Assessment (describe techniques
    and outputs, include maps as appropriate)
  • Threats To
  • -MMA
  • -Public Use and Firefighter Safety
  • -Smoke dispersion and effects
  • -Other Resources
  • Monitoring Actions (actions, frequency, and
    duration)
  • Mitigation Actions (describe holding actions,
  • management action points that initiate these
    actions and key to map if necessary)
  • Resources needed to manage the fire
  • Contingency Actions (describe actions necessary
  • when mitigation actions are unsuccessful)
  • Information Plan

The Fire Use Manager or Fire Use Management Team
Completes the Stage Three WFIP In Concert with
the Agency Administrator or Delegated Acting.
78
How Does The Management of a Wildland Fire Use
Event Differ From The Other Appropriate
Management Responses?
79
Science based long-range planning and technical
expertise is generally at a higher level than
practiced on suppression type incidents.
  • Management Actions, Both Long Short Term..
  • Development and Implementation of The Wildland
    Fire Implementation Plan (Stage III)..
  • Long Term Assessments of Fire Behavior
    Weather..
  • Development of MMA (Maximum Manageable Area)..

80
Simple Low to Moderate Complexity WFU Event
81
High Complexity WFU Event(Utilizing A Fire Use
Team)
Additional support staff and trainees may be
requested by the FUMT depending upon the specific
situation.
82
Fire Use Management Team Capabilities
  • WFIP Stage III requires significant time
    commitment and expertise in long range assessment
    and planning needs.
  • Manage complex operational needs.
  • Fill role if lack of qualified or experience fire
    use staff on the unit or from cooperators.

83
Fire Use Management Considerations
  • Delegation of Authority.
  • Commitment of local staff (fire behavior/GIS,
    AREP, READ, etc).
  • Turn-back standards, what do you need the team to
    accomplish?

84
FUMT Expectations of the Host Unit
  • Access to local phone computer systems and GIS
    data.
  • Assistance and support from local skill base
    (administrative host unit).
  • Assistance in developing a close working
    relationships with local groups and cooperators.
  • Daily interaction with host unit representatives.

85
Wildland Fire Use Management Key Points
  • Long term resource and time commitment, how long
    is your fire season?
  • Pre-event preparation and assessment products
    Agency Administrator, FMO, Fuels Spec., etc.
  • Communication with external partners and public.

86
REMEMBER!!
  • It is your job as a Resource Advisor to provide
    the best information and advice you can to help
    the Agency Administrator make informed and
    prudent decisions!
  • They are the decision makers and they must have
    your assistance and support throughout the
    process!

87
-- Finally -- Have Fun And -
Greasewood WFU, White River Field Office Day 1
88
Enjoy The View!
Big Fish WFU White River NF - 2002
89
QUESTIONS?
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