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Cultural Planning Creating Cultural Opportunities for Sustainable Communities


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Title: Cultural Planning Creating Cultural Opportunities for Sustainable Communities

Cultural Planning Creating Cultural Opportunities
for Sustainable Communities
  • Graeme Evans

  • Amenity Planning Standards (1920s/ 1940s/
    1950-60s New Towns)
  • Arts Centre / Community Arts movement (1970s)
  • Culture Regeneration (1980s -) Urban
  • Arts Social Inclusion (1990s -) Creative
    Partnerships, Best Value
  • Sustainable Communities (2000 -) Quality of Life,
    Living Places…
  • Drivers of change
  • Population growth migration, older/longer,
    family/single households
  • Housing Growth/areas 3m new homes - 240,000 p.a.
  • New Localism, Entrepreneurialism, Sustainable
    Communities Strategies
  • Developer/Planning Gains Community Levy,
  • Compact City/High Density Reduced Car-use
    Local Amenities

Cultural Planning What is it?
  • Cultural planning is a process of inclusive
    community consultation
  • and decision-making that helps local government
    identify cultural
  • resources and think strategically about how these
    resources can
  • help a community to achieve its civic goals. It
    is also a strategic
  • approach that directly and indirectly integrates
    the communitys
  • cultural resources into a wide range of local
    government planning
  • activities. Circus of Dreams (2001) Public Dreams
    Society Vancouver
  • Cultural planning is the strategic and
    integrated planning and use of
  • cultural resources in urban and community
  • (Mercer, 2006, and see Ghilardi, 2004). This in
    turn implies
  • An approach based on broad definitions of
    'culture' and 'cultural resources', which
    encompass heritage, local traditions, arts,
    media, crafts, topography, architecture, urban
    design, recreation, sports, entertainment,
    tourism and the cultural representations of
    places, and
  • A culturally sensitive approach to urban and
    regional planning and to environmental, social
    and economic policy-making

The Cultural Dimension of Urban Planning
Strategies An evolution of physical-economic
cultural planning paradigms Adapted by the
author from Freestone and Gibson (2006)
Adapted by the author from Freestone and Gibson
Standards of provision
Tariffs Special Planning Guidance (SPG)
  • Milton Keynes Roof tax - 18,500
  • MLA Southeast Library Tariff - 92.13 per person
    for new housing, equivalent to 221 with an
    average size of 2.4 persons
  • Supplementary Planning/SPD for Public Art
  • Sport Facility Calculator (Active Places
    People) population standard x unit cost (11.87
    m2 sports hall)
  • Other amenities and cultural facilities?
  • Choice over amenities and facilities ?

Frequency of engagement
Scale Hierarchy Every Town should Have One?
(J.Lane, 1978)
Arts Centre movement
  • This phenomenal growth is in no sense the result
    of central, regional or local planning by any one
    agency, least of all the Arts Council. It is, and
    has been unplanned (Stark, 1984).
  • This was also mirrored in France from the 1960s
    (Malrauxs Maison de la Culture) and artsc.
    centre growth in N.America etc
  • Stark made four assertions
  • Their unplanned status meant that there was never
  • food for them on the table - i.e. funding
  • 2. They are architectural opportunists - over 80
    of arts centres
  • were housed in second-hand buildings - churches,
    drill halls, town
  • halls, over 50 of urban centres were in
    buildings 100 years old
  • 3. They are economic and efficient -
    multi-use/purpose, weekday/end
  • /evening opening
  • 4. They are masters of disguise - in terms of
    their programme,
  • purpose, attracting a wide mix of funding, in
    addition to 'arts
  • funding.

  • 750 facilities were mapped (colour-coded) by
    one or a combination of these
  • categories (ie multivalent complexes), in terms
    of those that are city-owned
  • and independent (70 of the total). As in other
    cities, facilities are found in
  • clusters and corridors, and are not evenly
    dispersed across the city.
  • located in an area that has high pedestrian
  • near an abundance of public transportation
  • near easy access to major highways
  • part of a critical mass of like facilities.
  • The cultural facilities map is supported by a
    database that includes more
  • detailed information on each facility. In
    addition to providing a street address,
  • the database also captures the following facility
  • Art Forms - Performing, Visual, Media, Multi-Use
  • Facility Type - Theatre, Museum, Club,
    Multipurpose, Auditorium
  • Ownership - City Owned or Non-City Owned
  • User Groups - A listing of known user groups
    (where easily identified)

Arts Centres today
  • The foundation of many arts centres and community
  • arts facilities continues to draw as much from
  • action, as planning.
  • From the recent review of funded arts centres in
  • England (ACE, 2006) most were established as the
  • result of one or a combination of
  • action by a local resident or group of residents
  • action by an arts or community organisation to
  • or improve a facility
  • the development of new school, college or
  • facilities
  • a local authority seeking to improve local
    provision or,
  • more recently, to regenerate an area

Classifying Culture
  • Arts Cultural agencies type of production
  • programme (art form, collection, beneficiaries)
  • Local/City authorities licencing/control,
  • municipal amenity/recreation, image
  • Planning land-use, public use/space, conflicts
  • of use, access, parking …
  • Commercial/tourism entertainment, visitor
  • attractions, destination marketing
  • Community place of social exchange/ meeting,
    participation, enjoyment, education…

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Cultural facilities
  • An attempt to describe and map cultural
    facilities not just functionally, but in terms of
  • a regional cultural strategy and impacts, has
    been adopted in the Toronto, Ontario
  • (Davies, 2003).
  • Hubs provide support for cultural activity
    throughout all of the Citys diverse
  • communities. They tend to be community driven
    and nurture cultural activities at
  • a local level. About 60 of hubs tend to be
    concentrated in the downtown core
  • and about one third are City owned.
  • Incubators provide support for Torontos
    artists. They tend to be artist-run
  • facilities, Heavily clustered in specific urban
    neighbourhoods. More than 90 of
  • existing incubators are not owned by the City
    of Toronto.
  • Showcases provide support for culture as part of
    the Citys Economic
  • Development and Tourism Strategy. These
    facilities often have regional, national
  • or international profile. They are directed to
    more than a local community and are
  • key tourist destinations or attractions. More
    than 80 of showcases are not
  • owned by the City of Toronto.

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Cultural Planning Guidance
Cultural Mapping Guidance
Urban Cultural Districts (Philadelphia)

Cultural Planning
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Cultural plans can also take varying forms and
serve wider and more specific purposes. Different
types of Cultural Planning can include
  • Cultural plan with predominantly single
    discipline focus
  • Community-wide plan with a specific focus, for
    example on the arts sector alone
  • Community cultural assessment or cultural mapping
  • A comprehensive identification and analysis of a
    communitys cultural resources and needs gathered
    through a
  • broadly based consultative/collaborative
    process. It is a critical early phase of any
    cultural planning process.
  • Specialized arts or cultural assessment
  • Assessment with a specific focus, e.g., economic
    impact, feasibility study for fundraising
    campaign or facility
  • development, cultural tourism potential
  • Specific issue plan
  • Community-wide plan focused on a single issue,
    e.g., access and diversity
  • Specific district cultural plan
  • Plan with integrated goals for only one
    geographic portion of a community (e.g. inner
    city or neighbourhood)
  • Cultural component of municipal or regional
    general plan - vertical

Community Cultural Assessment
  • Use demographic (census) data to identify
    relevant characteristics of the population
  • Examine the cultural and social needs of
    different groups within the population
  • Categorise and list and/or map the areas
    cultural resources, including facilities,
  • activities, people, organisations, valued places
    and landscapes, previous cultural
  • projects, community services/facilities,
    economic activities
  • Identify plans for new or expanded cultural
  • Consider the relationships that exist between the
    areas various cultural resources
  • Identify barriers of access to cultural
    development activities by different groups
  • Examine the actual or potential leadership and
    support roles in cultural development of
  • civic, social, educational, religious, business
    and other organisations
  • Overview strengths and weaknesses in community
    cultural activity

Stages in Cultural Plan Assessment
Populating the Cultural Plan
Developing a typology for Living Places
A new typology for culture
  • Different-sized locators on maps to indicate
    scale of facility

Sub- regional
A new typology for culture
  • Putting it all together

Example Typical West End Theatre
West End Theatre Location Drury Lane
WC1N Floorspace XXX m2 Seats XXX No of
performances (annual) 365 Other interesting
Example Very local community centre
V.L. Community Centre Location Housing estate,
somewhere Floorspace XXX m2 Programming dance
classes, community meetings Other interesting
Mapping cultural provision and participation
Performing arts venues
Household penetration by Postcode Sector
Theatre Audience reach
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Taking Part Survey, DCMS (2006)
Growth regions - (MKSM) North Northants
Milton Keynes Tariff (Roof Tax 18,500 per
4.59 million 1.5 for culture explicitly
(excluding libraries) 170 per home spread
over 10 years (27,000 homes) 15.05 million for
Leisure Community 555 per home
Reurbanizing the suburbs? Milton
Keynes (Audience) I spent many years in Milton
Keynes. I loved it as a city. I understand that
it may grow to a city of half a million or a
million people. What would you do to MK to make
it a place where arts were a contemporary and
necessary experience? SPH (Artistic) Build a
smaller theatre for a start. The present theatre
is a dehumanizing space. Its well attended
because, presumably, there is nothing else that
gives you the beginnings of that kind of
experience, but its not a congenial
theatre. SPH (Planner) I think MK is
difficult precisely because it is so completely
new. MK central is the most totally created,
planned space that we have in this country..But I
think the problem the problem with MK is that it
has been too successful. So it does not have any
derelict spaces. If you go to Germany they have
this federal constitution (like America), but
its very beneficial, because every decent city
has an incredible array of good theatre and even
an opera house, because they are all competing
with each other to show that they are the best
state. (City, 10(3), 2006) The distinction
between (artistic) content, the iconic/flagship
facility and the importance of place (cultural
and symbolic) is apparent from these
observations. The idea that building a new
theatre is necessarily the right type of
provision or the complete answer to local
cultural provision is obviously questionable.
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Population growth and change
  • 52,100 new homes
  • 47,000 new jobs
  • by 2021

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Cultural Governance
Culture Governance The Fourth Pillar of
Sustainability (Hawkes, 2001) Bennett argues
culture itself should be thought of as
inherently governmental, so that culture is
used to refer to a set of practices for social
management deployed to constitute autonomous
populations as self-governing (1995) Residents
in Wellingborough (in NNDC Growth area) were
asked how they felt about opportunities for
participation in local decision-making. They
mostly disagreed that they had an influence on
decisions affecting the local area - access to
facilities was a problem (public transport) and
30 to 48 said they had never visited their
museums, theatres and concerts halls, and those
that did went infrequently… (WBC Best Value,
The cultural dimension in spatial planning
Non-Planning or Flexible Planning
Integrated cultural planning may not be the right
approach as it tends to raise expectations beyond
reality. Tiresome culture-related shopping lists
are not helpful (Kunzmann 2004).
Give communities the freedom to decide for
themselves how they want to use each part, each
space…the measure of success is the way that
spaces are used, the diversity of activities
which they attract, and the opportunities they
provide for creative reinterpretation
(Hertzberger, 1991)
Concluding issues - discussion
  • Planning for cultural facilities or cultural
    programmes ?
  • How can artists/cultural organisations feature
    more in
  • the urban development/design and planning
    process ?
  • Barriers to cultural participation how far are
  • cultural capital or supply / environmental-led ?
  • Does size matter? scale, strategic, local-global…
  • Planning for new not incumbent communities ?

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Key references Living Places/Cultural Planning
Toolkit website launching Summer 2008
  • Evans, G.L. (2001) Cultural Planning An Urban
    Renaissance? Routledge
  • Evans, G.L. (2005) Measure for Measure
    Evaluating the Evidence of
  • Cultures Contribution to Regeneration. Urban
    Studies, 42(5/6), 959-983
  • Freestone, R. and Gibson, C. (2006) The Cultural
    Dimension of Urban
  • Planning Strategies An Historical Perspective.
    In, Culture, Urbanism
  • and Planning. Aldershot, Ashgate, 21-41
  • Hawkes, J. (2001) The Fourth Pillar of
    Sustainability Cultures Essential
  • role in Public Planning. Melbourne Cultural
    Development Network
  • Creative City Network of Canada (2007) Cultural
    Mapping and Cultural
  • Planning Toolkits. Vancouver, 2010 Legacies Now
  • Thames Gateway North Kent (2006) Cultural
    Planning Framework Toolkit
  • Evans, G and Foord, J. (2008) Cultural Mapping
    and Sustainable Communities
  • Planning for the Arts revisited, Cultural Trends