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EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR ANATOMY

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Title: EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR ANATOMY


1
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR ANATOMY
  • By Dr. Gautam Ash. B.H.M.S., M.D.
    (Hom),
  • Reader H.O.D., Dept. of Anatomy, National
    Institute of Homoeopathy, Block - GE, Sector
    III, Salt Lake, KOLKATA 700 106.
  • Formerly Reader H.O.D., Dept. of Anatomy, Fr.
    Mullers Homoeopathic Medical College, Kankanady,
    Mangalore 575 002.

2
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION
1. Proximate Aims and Ultimate Aims of Education
Ultimate Aims a. Related with The whole of Our
life process. b. The
fulfillment of which will touch the whole
national life.
c. It require some fragmentation for
the better
fulfillment of the broad aspiration.
Proximate Aims a. Are concerned in everyday
living. b. Objectives
are more specific, concrete
practical that led to the
destination the
ultimate aim. c.
Relate education to the living experiences of
the individual.
3
Comprehensive Aim of Education
Unfoldment of all the innate powers of
an individual for the
development of an
integrated personality.
Aims of Modern Indian Education To increase
productivity, achieve social
national integration, accelerate
the process of
modernization cultivate
social, moral spiritual values.
3. Individual Development
Physical, Mental
Spiritual faculties.
4. Social and National Development Developing
a sense of national identity, unity and
patriotism.
4
5. Social Transformation To adjust with society
6. Modernization With
Scientific and Technological advancement.
7. Productivity To bring about a social
transformation,
and enhance greater efficiency and
productivity in all sectors
agricultural,
industrial and service"
8. Community Participation
Integrating education with community in all
respects.
9. Acquisition of Values Certain
basic values as respect for others,
responsibility, solidarity, creativity and
integrity must be fostered.
5
THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN ANATOMY   Is
the study of the FORM STRUCTURE of the
body(and the ORGANS SYSTEMS which form it)
and the regularities of the development of this
structure in relation to its functions
external environment. The old descriptive
Anatomy - - was description of the body.
The modern Anatomy - - attempts to explain ?
How the Organism is formed? ? Why it is so
formed? ? Treats the human organism as a single
entity. ? Having a definite pattern of
development. ? Influenced by various internal
external conditions throughout the
evolutionary process. ? A science, accumulates
describes facts. ? Effective in understanding
the other subjects.
6
APPLIED ANATOMY ?To improve our
knowledge of human structure and understand how
certain morphological characteristics can
provide an advantage for human physical
performances. ?To apply theoretical
understanding of body modification principles and
practical skills in physical capacity measurement
to sporting, clinical and occupational settings.
?The application of anatomical knowledge to
the diagnosis treatment of the disease. ?
Scope limitation of Homoeopathic practice.
7
AIMS OBJECTIVES IN DEVELOPING THE
ANATOMY AS A SCIENCE Two branches
of science that are helping us in understanding
the body parts and functions are Anatomy and
Physiology. Physiology can not be completely
separated from anatomy, we are learning human
body by studying its structures and functions
together, and we are seeing how each structure
of the body is custom modeled to carry out a
particular function. So Anatomy is to
Physiology as Geography is to History (Fernel)
that is, it provides the setting for the
events. Although the primary concern of anatomy
is with structure, structure and function should
always be considered together in homoeopathic
practice to understand the health, disease and
recovery.
8
As one of the basic life sciences, anatomy is
closely related to medicine
and to other branches of biology
STRUCTURE
FORM  

FUNCTION
? The descriptive,
evolutionary FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY
OF ANATOMY ARE IMPORTANT IN ITS
EFFECTIVENESS IN UNDERSTANDING THE OTHER
SUBJECTS. ? THE MAIN OBJECT OF STUDY ANATOMY IS
THE ORGANISM AS A SINGLE ENTITY, ITS
STRUCTURE , DEVELOPMENT AND WHICH IS INFLUENCED
BY VARIOUS INTERNAL EXTERNAL CONDITIONS
THROUGHOUT THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS.
9
SUBDIVISIONS OF
ANATOMY  Ø      MACROSCOPIC OR GROSS
ANATOMY 1.      Living Anatomy 2.     
Cadaveric Anatomy 3.      Comparative
Anatomy 4.      Experimental Anatomy 5.     
Topographical Anatomy / Surface Anatomy 6.     
Radiological Anatomy 7.      Embryology /
Developmental Anatomy 8.      APPLIED / CLINICAL
/ SURGICAL / PATHOLOGICAL Anatomy   Ø     
MICROSCOPICAL ANATOMY  1.      Cytology 2.     
Histology 3.      Organology
10
APPLIED ANATOMY ITS
IMPORTANCE          Study of structural changes
caused by diseases / Developmental
anomalies of the organ(s) or system(s) /
Changes in abnormal conditions ( Diseases )
when some of the Clinical
conditions are examined and are
compared with the condition in normal
anatomy.           The Anatomical facts are
correlated for the sake of
successful treatment / operations.        
Essential for better understanding of the
pathological conditions helpful in
Diagnosis, Prognosis, Complications and
Management / Treatment ( Scope
Limitation of Homoeopathic treatment ).
11
IMPORTANCE OF APPLIED ANATOMY IN
HOMOEOPATHY (1)   Gross anatomy i.e. Regional
anatomy, Systemic anatomy and Surface anatomy
helps in understanding the Location(s), Sensation
Pathology, Concomitant(s) etc. for any
complain(s) i.e. to understand Characteristic
symptom(s) of the disease or the patient. (2)  
Histology, Cytology and Organology - helps in
understanding (a) The Physiological
actions of drugs or Spheres of action or
Centers) of action of drugs. and (b)
The type (nature) of changes occurring in a
particular region and in a particular
type of cells or tissues and organs. It may be
functional and / or structural changes
and may be reversible or irreversible. It
may be inflammatory or sequelae of
inflammation it may be proliferative
or degenerative etc. (c) The diagnosis,
prognosis and curability of the cases i.e. the
Scope and Limitations of Homoeopathic
treatment. (d) The Miasms. (e) The
Posology etc.  
12
(3)   Nervous system helps in understanding the
signs and symptoms of the Central as well as
Peripheral nervous systems and to differentiate
from that of the Mental symptoms of the patient
(to differentiate common from characteristic
mental symptoms) which helps in selecting a
remedy. (4)   Developmental anatomy,
Embryology, Genetics, Pediatric anatomy and
Teratology - helps in understanding (a)
The curability of any disease (diagnosis,
prognosis complications of the
case) i.e. Scope Limitations of
homoeopathic treatment. (b) The
Constitution i.e. Physical make up and
Temperament of an individual and
(c) The Fundamental and Dominant Miasms. (5)
Clinical anatomy and Applied anatomy - helps in
understanding (a) The diagnosis,
prognosis complications of any diseases and its
curability with medicines,
(b) Classification of the surgical diseases / one
sided diseases, (c) The individualization
or the Man And the obstacles to recovery and
application of auxiliary measures,
(d) The sensitivity (the reaction of the nerves)
and susceptibility (the reaction of
the tissues) of an individual.
13
(6)   Living anatomy many a students first
realizes its importance only when brought to the
bedside of his patient, when the first thing he
is faced with is the last and least he has
considered. The classical method of physical
examination of the body and the use of same of
the various - scopes (GK. Skopos, watcher),
e.g., the Stethoscope, Otoscope, Laryngoscope,
Cystoscope, Ophthalmoscope, Endoscope,
Laparoscope etc., should be understood by them
through living anatomy. (7)   Radiological
anatomy Different Radiological and Ultrasonic
studies facilitate achievement of an
understanding of the fluid character of anatomy
and physiology of the living, and the importance
of variation should be kept constantly in
mind. (8)   Moreover, a point frequently lost
to sight is that the study of anatomy introduces
the medical students to the greater part of
medical terminology.
14
Anatomy Student Guidelines
  • Listening to lectures is a passive process from
    which the student derives a certain amount of
    factual information, which is found in textbooks,
    but gains very little in the way of practical and
    intellectual skills and experiences. 
  • Learning is an active process and can be obtained
    only through participation in the activities that
    are specially designed to be learning
    experiences. 
  • Students will be expected to assume
    responsibility for their own learning.  They
    should actively seek information from textbooks
    prior to attending lectures and course
    activities.  
  • They should learn various practical and
    intellectual skills of examination of the human
    body, identification of its component parts and
    interpretation of findings. 
  • They should learn to communicate clearly and
    effectively and to collaborate in all
    activities. 
  • They should learn to evaluate their own progress,
    take remedial action where required, adapt to
    living in the world beyond the classroom, and
    thus to prepare themselves for life long
    learning, which is essential in the rapidly
    evolving field of medicine. 

15
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • To provide an academic environment for the
    promotion of learning anatomy so as to ensure
    quality, effectiveness and compliance in medical
    education.
  • To accomplish these goals we developed learning
    opportunities that lead to the following
    educational objectives.

BROAD OBJECTIVES 1. The attainment of factual
knowledge. 2. The development of practical and
intellectual skills. 3. The application of 
anatomical knowledge to practical situations.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES By the end of the
pre-clinical years students should be able to 1.
Recognize the scientific basis of medicine in
health, common and high impact medical conditions
in contemporary society. 2. Describe the main
points relating to the development, structure and
function of the healthy human body and each of
its major organ. 3. Identify  the different
parts of the human body and its major organ
systems in dissection specimens and sections of
the body.
16
4. Interpret  images of the human body obtained
by radiology, ultrasound, computerized axial
tomography, magnetic resonance and other imaging
techniques . 5. Examine different parts of the
living body in order to test their functional
integrity. 6. Identify the main fine structural
features of tissues and organs at the
histological, ultra structural and molecular
levels. 7. Discuss the implications of altered
structure and function (pathology) of the body
organ and systems  in some common diseases. 8.
Acquire new information and data and critically
appraise its validity and applicability to making
professional decisions. 9. Organize, record,
research, and present scientific and clinical
information.
17
  • Laboratory Procedures in Anatomy

18
10. Demonstrate high ethical standards, academic
integrity,  professional responsibility and
social responsibility. 11. Exhibit a capacity
for self-evaluation, moral reflection and ethical
judgment to form the basis for a self-directed,
lifelong engagement in the responsible,
committed, compassionate practice of medicine.
  • Attendance Policy
  • Students are expected to attend all sessions, as
    all of them are relevant and necessary for the
    attainment of the stated objectives.
  • The department will also endeavor to adhere to
    the scheduled  time table provide a course
    schedule with clearly explained policies and
    syllabus.
  • Any changes in the schedule will be brought
    immediately to the notice of students.

19
  • Course Components
  • ANATOMY DISSECTION
  • A significant portion of the course will be
    devoted to dissecting room sessions.  Student in
    groups will study dissection of  human cadaver,
    and cross-sections of anatomical regions of the
    entire body. The understanding of anatomical
    relationships will be reinforced with the
    concomitant use of radiographic, sectional and
    digital imaging. There will be two types of
    dissecting room sessions.  One is a  structured
    session lasting 90 minutes in which small groups
    of 3-5 students will rotate through a number of
    learning stations, examining the provided
    dissections,  and following the provided
    worksheets.
  • Students should direct their own learning,
    ensuring that they have examined the specimens
    thoroughly,   identified  all structures and 
    answered any questions in the worksheets.  Before
    coming to the sessions students should
    familiarise themselves with the worksheet and and
    read through the relevant anatomical texts and
    atlas. Students in the group are encouraged to
    work together, to discuss and share their
    learning with others in the group.
  • A tutor  will be present during the dissection
    sessions to help students with any problems they
    might encounter.   Tutors will also encourage,
    stimulate  and challenge students to learn
    independently and may prompt students to discuss 
    specific questions or clinical applications
    related to the region of the body being
    studied.  

20
LIVING ANATOMY An essential aspect aimed at
developing skills of clinical examination  and
interpretation of clinical  images in clinical
practice. 
  • Dummy  models
  • Are available for practicing certain clinical
     procedures such as pelvic examination,  mammary
    gland examination and vein puncture.
  • Radiographs, CT-scans, MRI scans and ultrasound
    images will also be available and are considered
    to be an integral part of living anatomy as they
    allow visualization of internal structures in the
    living.  
  • RADIOLOGY CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING
  • To develop an understanding of the relationships
    of three dimensional anatomy to basic normal
    findings in radiology imaging.  
  • Help students to determine the level of
    anatomical detail required in the interpretation
    of images.

21
  • CRITICAL THINKING
  • To Promote independent, self directed learning,
    to think about the relevance and applications of
    anatomy.
  • To Stimulate  students to  analyze problems  and
    present possible solutions.
  • To Encourage active student  participation in
    group discussions
  • Provide immediate feedback.
  • Students are presented with clinical problems
    and a set of related questions in advance of the
    scheduled session.
  • Students should study the problems and look up
    any required information. 
  • Students will be required to present their
    answers to the problems, criticize, discuss and
    improve the answers.
  • Critical thinking is a rather 'new' concept in
    teaching but is being introduced at all levels of
    education.

22
  • LECTURES
  • To focus on major anatomical concepts and
    introduce clinical relationships. 
  • Not intended to present all information the
    students are expected to know, and which may be
    obtained from the textbooks and reading
    material. 
  • Only a small proportion of new material can be
    absorbed by  students during lectures.
  •  
  • If  the lecture is the first exposure of a
    student to a particular topic, very little of it
    can be absorbed, and  is often difficult for
    students to follow.
  •  
  • Conversely, the student who already has some
    knowledge of the topic will be able to understand
    and absorb much more of  the material being
    presented.  

23
  • HISTOLOGY
  • Provides the foundations of clinical
    microanatomy and cell function. 
  • Emphasizes the relation between cell and tissue
    structure to their functions.
  • Is a requisite  for subsequent learning of
    histopathology, pathphysiology and the related
    clinical problems. 
  • CELL BIOLOGY
  • For understanding the molecular mechanisms of
    cellular functions, and for correlation of ultra
    structure to molecular events.
  • Molecular biology provides the key to
    understanding the basis of life, and has become
    an important aspect of medicine. 
  • Provides a basic understanding of normal and
    disease processes from normal controlled cell
    division to the uncontrolled growth and deranged
    functioning of cancer cells.
  •  
  • For understanding of the action of certain drugs
    on diseased cells. 
  • Provides an understanding of  some embryological
    processes and of many genetic disorders.

24
  • EMBRYOLOGY
  • Embryonic and fetal development form the
    beginnings of human life, which are not only of
    fundamental  biological importance but also have
    highly topical, ethical and moral implications. 
  • The process of development also explains several
    aspects of adult human anatomy. 
  • SUPERVISED CLINICAL EXPERIENCE
  • The clinical tutor will present the patient and
    his or her case history, demonstrate anatomically
    relevant points and clinical examination. 
  • To give the student the opportunity to encounter
    patients and actual clinical situations.   
  • SELF-STUDY
  • Intended for  independent, self-directed use of
    departmental resources, educational materials
    such as interactive software, the Internet, and
    text books.

25
  • THE ANATOMY PROJECT
  • Each student is required to perform a small
    practical project.
  •  
  • It may deal with any aspect of anatomy including
    gross anatomy, histology or embryology.
  •  
  • It may take a variety of forms including the
    production of a dissection, a small research
    project, a three-dimensional model, a video,
    CD-ROM or a librarybased research.
  • The objectives of the Anatomy Project are to
    demonstrate students abilities to
  • Define the aims of their project.
  • Plan and organize the project.
  • Apply practical skills in the performance of the
    project.
  • 4. Write a brief and relevant scientific report
    about the project.

26
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Conference Papers,
Part I, II III., I.C.R. Conference on
Education I, Published by Institute of
Clinical Research, Symposium Council December,
1984, Bomba 2. Dhawale, M.L. Principles
Practice of Homoeopathy, Part I, Second
Edition, 1985, Institute of Clinical
Research, Bombay. 3. Dunham Carroll Homoeopathy
The Science of Therapeutics, First published in
1984, Reprinted in 1988, B. Jain Publishers
(P) Ltd., New Delhi 4. Gardner, Grey Orahilly
Anatomy, Forth Asian Edition, Saunders Igaku
Shoin. 5. Hollinshead, W.Henry Anatomy for
Surgeons, Second Edition, 3 Volumes, Hoeber
Harper, New York. 6. Hollinshead, W.Henry,
Rosse, Cornelius Text Book of Anatomy, Forth
Edition, Harper Row Publishers,
Philadelphia, Published in 1817. 7. Prives, M.,
Lysenkov, N. and Bushkovich, V. Human Anatomy,
Vol . I II, Revised from the 1974
Russian Edition, Mir Publishers, Moscow,
FirstPublished in 1985. 8. Perceibing I, The
I.C.R. Kalpa Taru Series Research In
Educational Philosophy And Technology,
Published by Institute of Clinical Research,
Bombay. 9. The I.C.R. Operational Manual,
Published by Institute of Clinical Research,
Bombay, in 1980. 10.Tortora, Gerard J.
Anagnostakos, Nicholas P. Principles of Anatomy
an Physiology, Forth Edition, Harper
International Edition, Harper RowPublisher, New
York.
27
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