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Title: CHEMICAL EOR FIELD EXPERIENCE Oil Chem Technologies, Inc. Sugar Land, TX USA www.oil-chem.com


1
CHEMICAL EOR FIELD EXPERIENCEOil Chem
Technologies, Inc. Sugar Land, TX
USAwww.oil-chem.com
2
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction to Oil Chem
  • EOR past
  • EOR - Oil Chem Technologies field experience to
    share
  • EOR - future

3
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • EOR past
  • EOR - Oil Chem Technologies field experience to
    share
  • EOR - future

4
WHY EOR?
5
Oil Recovery Overview
BAVIER BASIC CONCEPTS OF EOR PROCESSES(1991)
6
WHY CHEMICAL EOR?
7
ECONOMICS FOR FIELD ASP PROJECTS
Field W. Kiehl Cambridge Daqing
Surfactant 0.10 0.10 0.30
Alkali 0.80 1.25 1.00
Polymer 1050 ppm 1425 ppm 1200 ppm
Tot. Cost 375,000 2,518,000 1,009,000
Inc. ASP Oil 275,000 1,143,000 270,000
Cost/bbl 1.46 2.20 3.79
8
ROLE OF SURFACTANTS
  • Reduce interfacial tension
  • Wettability alteration
  • Polymer, CDG, BW, etc. can be used along with
    surfactants when mobility control is necessary

9
SURFACE OR INTERFACIAL TENSIONS
SYSTEM mN/m
Water 72
Pure Hydrocarbons 40
Crude Oil 30 - 40
Crude Oil/Water 3 - 30
Crude Oil/Water/Surfactant lt 0.01
10
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAPILLARY NUMBER AND OIL
RECOVERY
Nc ? µ /? cos?
  • Nc Capillary Number
  • ? Darcy Velocity
  • µ Viscosity
  • Interfacial Tension
  • Twetting angle

11
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • EOR past
  • EOR - Oil Chem Technologies field experience to
    share
  • EOR - future

12
LOUDON FLOOD - EXXON 1983
  • 2.3 surfactant
  • 96 of the connate salinity
  • 0.3 pore volume
  • 0.1 Xanthan gum
  • 56 million pounds surfactant was injected in 9
    months
  • 68 ROIP

13
ROBINSON MARATHON1983
  • 10 surfactant petroleum sulfonate
  • 0.8 hexanol as co-surfactant
  • 2.5 salt
  • No polymer
  • 0.1 pore volume
  • 19 21 ROIP

14
CHEMICAL EOR -PAST PROBLEMS
  • Technical success but limited commercial
    success - Reasons?

15
EOR BY CHEMICAL FLOOD
  • Limited commercial success for the past two
    decades - Reasons?
  • Sensitivity to oil price
  • Limitations of chemicals
  • High surfactant concentration
  • Salinity optimization required
  • Potential emulsion block

16
  • However,
  • Extensive lab evaluations and field pilot tests
    support the feasibility of chemical flooding
  • New chemicals and processes open the door for new
    opportunities
  • Recent field data using these new chemical and
    processes proves chemical flooding is an
    effective way to recover residual oil

17
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • EOR past
  • EOR - Oil Chem Technologies field experience to
    share
  • EOR - future

18
CURRENT PROJECTS
  • 21 Current projects
  • 20MT to 400 MT Surfactant/mo
  • 400 MT _at_ 0.1 28,000,000 bbl/mo injection
  • California 50,000 MT surfactant/yr _at_ 0.2
    155,000,000 bbl/yr
  • Build plant onsite

19
CHINA EOR PROJECTS
  • Heavy crude recovery
  • Low perm formation oil recovery
  • High temp. / high salinities
  • Effective, economical offshore EOR

20
CHINA EOR PROJECTS
INJECTED, ON-GOING APPROVED PROJECTS SS
B2080, SS B5050, SS B1688, ORS-46L, ORS-97HF,
ORS-41HF
21
  • 1992-94 LAB EVALUATION
  • Over 100 Surfactants Were Tested
  • Including
  • ORS-41
  • Petroleum Sulfonates
  • Carboxylates
  • Lignin Sulfonate/Petroleum Sulfonates
  • Microbiological

22
  • 1995 - INITIAL FIELD
  • EVALUATION
  • Daqing No.4 Field - Oil Chem
  • Technologies ORS-41
  • Daqing No.1 Field another US companys
    Petroleum Sulfonate

23
1996-1998 ENLARGED FIELD EVALUATION
  • ORS-41 was the ONLY surfactant chosen for
    enlarged field evaluation. More than 7000 MT of
    the ORS-41 was injected in several field blocks
    and this confirmed the viability of the ASP
    process
  • SPE 36748, 57288, 71061, 71491, 71492

24
(No Transcript)
25
DAQING CENTRAL WELL
SPE 57288
26
DAQING CENTRAL FIELD
SPE 84896
27
HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY CREATING WATER EXTERNAL
PSEUDO-EMULSION
28
HEAVY OIL PSEUDO-EMULSION
Control
0.1 SF-100 Surfactant
29
HEAVY OIL PSEUDO-EMULSION
0.1 SF-100 Surfactant
Control
30
HEAVY OIL PSEUDO-EMULSION
0.1 SF-100 Surfactant
Control
Oil Viscosity lt 200 cps
Oil Viscosity 6,700 cps
31
LAB CORE FLOOD DATA
Oil Recovery,
Water flood
Injection Volume, PV
32
LOW PERM INJECTIVITY ENHANCER
  • Permeability 0.1 10 md
  • High water injection pressure makes water flood
    unfeasible
  • FI series surfactants reduced injection pressure,
    increased injectivity
  • Effectively increased the injectivity in several
    fields in China and USA

33
CANADA EOR PROJECTS
  • HEAVY CRUDE
  • TAR SAND
  • LOWER RESERVOIR TEMPERATURES
  • FRESH WATER SOURCES
  • HIGH SALINITY RESERVOIRS
  • FRACTURED CARBONATE FORMATIONS

34
CANADA EOR PROJECTS
INJECTED, ON-GOING APPROVED PROJECTS SS
B2080, SS B5050, SS B1688, ORS-46L, ORS-97HF,
ORS-41HF Some field results will be published
upon completion of projects
35
NORTHERN CANADA SP PROJECT
  • Heavy oil field, API 12 -13
  • Under polymer flood
  • Added 0.1 surfactant with polymer in November,
    2006
  • 3 months later, the water cut reduced from 97
    to 58

36
UNITED STATES EOR PROJECTS
  • FRESH WATER SOURCES
  • HIGH SALINITY RESERVOIRS
  • FRACTURED CARBONATE FORMATIONS
  • LOW PERMEABILITY

37
UNITED STATES EOR PROJECTS
INJECTED, ON-GOING APPROVED PROJECTS ORS-41HF
(2), ORS-62, ORS-97, ORS-46HF, ORS-162, SS-7593,
SS B1688(2)
38
SHO-VEL-TUM FIELD
  • On production gt 40 yrs, extensive water flood,
    produced 4 bbl/day
  • ASP started on 2/98, using Na2CO3 and ORS-62
  • Total incremental oil gt 10,444 bbl (22 bbls/day)
    in 1.3 years

SPE 84904
39
OIL SATURATION AFTER ASP INJECTION
SPE 84904
40
MELLOTT RANCH WYOMINGASP PROJECT
  • 0.1 ORS-46HF, 1 NaOH, 1300 PPM polymer
  • Recovered 989,000 bbl or 16.4 OOIP between 2003
    and 2005
  • Injection volume decreased 2,800,000 bbl due
    decreased water cut

41
MELLOTT RANCH ASP PROJECT - ORS-46HF
WATER FLOOD SINCE 1966
42
BIG SINKING, KENTUCKY
  • Project Information
  • Crude oil 100 Million bbl
  • Bottom Hole Temperature 30oC
  • Depth 1150 ft
  • Thickness 25 feet (7.32 meter)
  • Permeability 45 mD

SPE 100004
43
BIG SINKING, KENTUCKY
  • Chemical injected
  • 0.8 NaOH 0.1 ORS-162HF
  • Problems overcome
  • IFT lowered from 23.6 to 0.001 mN/m
  • Poor water injectivity
  • High water cuts
  • 220 increase in injectivity
  • Large field trial scheduled to begin in 12/2007

SPE 89384
44
BIG SINKING, KENTUCKY
SPE 89384
45
TANNER FIELD, WYOMING
  • Project Information
  • Crude oil 21o API
  • Bottom Hole Temperature 175oF
  • Depth 8915 ft
  • Thickness 25 ft
  • Porosity 20
  • Permeability 200 mD

SPE 100004
46
TANNER, WYOMING
SPE 100004
47
SOUTHEAST ASIA PROJECTS
  • HEAVY CRUDE
  • HIGH TEMPERATURES
  • ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS
  • FRESH WATER SOURCE

48
SOUTHEAST ASIA PROJECTS
INJECTED, ON-GOING APPROVED PROJECTS SS
6-72LV, SS 8020
49
OFFSHORE ALKALINE SURFACTANT (AS) PROJECT
  • SEA WATER IS SOFTENED ON THE PLATFORM
  • SINGLE WELL TEST SUCCESSFULLY PERFORMED
  • USING SS 6-72LV INJECTED WITH NAOH
  • PILOT PROJECT WILL PROCEED

50
SOUTH AMERICA PROJECTS
  • VARIOUS RESERVOIR CONDITIONS
  • MANY EOR CANDIDATE FIELDS
  • OFFSHORE INLAND
  • ASPHALTENE REMOVAL / WELLBORE
  • DAMAGE REMOVAL
  • IMPROVED GAS RECOVERY/REDUCED
  • WATER CUT

51
SOUTH AMERICA PROJECTS
INJECTED, ON-GOING APPROVED PROJECTS ORS-57HF,
ORS-41HF (2), SS-6046, SS GI-1416, SS B1688
52
as
53
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • EOR past
  • EOR - Oil Chem Technologies field experience to
    share
  • EOR - future

54
EOR BY CHEMICAL FLOOD
  • The future is bright Reasons?
  • High oil prices
  • Energy demand
  • Diminishing reserves
  • Past experience
  • New technologies

55
CHEMICAL EOR - THE FUTURE
  • New processes use less surfactant (up to
  • 10 times less)
  • Extensive lab evaluations support the feasibility
    of chemical flooding
  • Field data proves chemical flooding is an
    effective way to recover residual oil
  • Cost of chemicals have not increased in
    proportion to price of crude oil

56
COST OF CHEMICALS
1980 2006
Polymer1 3-4/lb 1/lb
Surfactant2 0.40-0.60/lb 0.60-1.2/lb
Alkali3 0.12/lb 0.20-.040/lb
Crude Oil 12/bbl 50-70/bbl
Incr. Cost/bbl 8-15 0.50-5
1 Some processes eliminate need for polymer 2
Surfactant concentration has been reduced by 10 3
Alkali has been reduced by 50 or in some cases
is not needed at all
57
PROCESS CHOICES
  • Surfactant
  • Surfactant Polymer
  • Alkaline Surfactant
  • Alkaline Surfactant Polymer
  • Smart Surfactant
  • Pseudo-emulsion
  • Chemical/Mechanical

58
SCALING UP
59
ENLARGED FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD
  • Raw Material Supply
  • Source (local or import)
  • Availability (quantity, quality)
  • Alternative suppliers
  • Storage
  • Manufacturing Location
  • Foreign, domestic, on-site
  • Shipping, tax, etc.
  • Storage and distribution
  • Flexibility

60
ENLARGED FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD
  • Capital Investment
  • Up-front investment
  • Operational cost
  • By-products

61
CHEMICAL EOR OPPORTUNITIES
  • Conventional Oil Recover Factor lt33
  • Oil reserves reservoir characteristics have
    already been confirmed
  • Improved processes and chemicals are available
  • Better scaling and modeling has been developed

62
CHEMICAL EOR OPPORTUNITIES
  • Two trillion bbl of oil remain in depleted or
    abandoned wells
  • Chemical floods offer the only chance in many
    depleted water flooded reservoirs
  • Chemical EOR must be re-evaluated based on
    current technical economic conditions
  • Minimal or no remediation is necessary,
    minimizing environmental constraints
  • Trained personnel are available locally

63
COMPLIMENTARY SURFACTANT EVALUATION
Total Bill 0.00
To Oil Chem Technologies
64
SHARE OUR TECHNOLOGY EXPERENCES TEAM WORK
- KEY TO SUCCESS
65
THANK YOU ! Oil Chem Technologies, Inc. 12822
Park One Drive Sugar Land, TX 77478 281-240-0161 w
ww.oil-chem.com
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