Dr' Erwin, Chika Asai, Jenny Durham, Amy Halvorson, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Dr' Erwin, Chika Asai, Jenny Durham, Amy Halvorson, PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: fb76f-ZDc1Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Dr' Erwin, Chika Asai, Jenny Durham, Amy Halvorson,


Individualism vs. Collectivism. Individualism ... Collectivism ... The Worldview dimensions of individualism and collectivism: Implications for counseling. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:50
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: KWN


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dr' Erwin, Chika Asai, Jenny Durham, Amy Halvorson,

Benefiting Multicultural Clients by Considering
  • Dr. Erwin, Chika Asai, Jenny Durham, Amy
  • Sarah Holte
  • Counseling and Student Affairs
  • Minnesota State University Moorhead
  • North Dakota Counseling Conference
  • Bismark, North Dakota
  • February 6, 2006

  • Acculturation Overview
  • Individualism vs. Collectivism
  • Berrys Model of Acculturation
  • Assessing Acculturation
  • Acculturation Strategies
  • Case Study
  • Questions

  • Definition
  • A process that entails contact between two
    cultural groups, which results in numerous
    cultural changes in both parties

  • Explore clients acculturation level
  • Understand their worldviews
  • Adjust interventions to meet the clients needs
  • Be cultural sensitive

Individualism vs. Collectivism
  • Individualism
  • A world view that respects personal goals and
    individual uniqueness more than communal goals
    and social unity
  • Personal needs have priority over in-group needs
  • Collectivism
  • A worldview that group members are connected with
    and interdependent between each other
  • In-group needs are placed before personal needs

Self concept
  • Individualism
  • The self is independent from a group
  • Collectivism
  • The self is a part of a group

  • Individualism
  • Autonomous in interpersonal relationships
  • Higher social skill in starting new relationships
  • May give up unproductive social relationships
  • Collectivism
  • Interpersonal harmony is the primal concern
  • Take time in forming new relationships
  • Relationships tend to be Intimate and
  • Make efforts to maintain relationships

Communication Style
  • Individualism
  • Direct communication style
  • Focuses on content
  • Verbal communication is stressed
  • Collectivism
  • Indirect communication style
  • Focuses on context
  • Non-verbal communication is important

Coping Strategies
  • Individualism
  • Assertiveness
  • Expressing emotions
  • Confrontation
  • Collectivism
  • Social Support
  • Avoidance
  • Forbearance

  • John Berrys model is based on the principles of
    cultural maintenance and contact-participation
  • Cultural Maintenance
  • the extent individuals value and wish to maintain
    their cultural identity
  • Contact-Participation
  • the extent individuals value and seek out contact
    with those outside their own group, and wish to
    participate in the daily life of the larger

Cultural Maintenance / Contact-Participation
  • From these two principles come two questions that
    form the model
  • Cultural Maintenance Is it considered to be of
    value to maintain ones identity and
  • Contact-Participation Is it considered to be of
    value to maintain relationships with larger

Berrys Model of Acculturation
Characteristics of Acculturation
  • Integrated individuals
  • Individuals want to maintain their identity with
    home culture, but also want to take on some
    characteristics of the new culture
  • Assimilated individuals
  • These people do not want to keep their identity
    from their home culture, but would rather take on
    all of the characteristics of the new culture
  • Separated individuals
  • They want to separate themselves from the
    dominant culture
  • Can be called segregation if it is forced
  • Marginalized individuals
  • These individuals dont want anything to do with
    either the new culture or the old culture

Assessing Acculturation
  • Language
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Educational status
  • Employment
  • Societal norms
  • Social status
  • Media usage
  • Social relations
  • Gender roles

Questions Used to Assess Acculturation
  • What language do you speak?
  • What language do you prefer?
  • How do you self identify?
  • Which ethnic identification does (did) your
    mother and father use?
  • What was the ethnic origin of the friends a peers
    you had as a child?
  • Whom do you now associate with in the outside
  • What is your music/television/movie preference?
  • Where were you born?
  • Where were you raised?
  • What is your food preference?
  • What language do you read/write/think it?
  • How much pride do you have in your ethnic group?

Learn about your clients culture
  • Talk with clients
  • Cultural consultants
  • Involvement in community
  • Visit cultural centers
  • Research

Consider Adjusting Your Interview Style
  • Eye Contact
  • Personal Space
  • Rate of Speech

Culture Self Assessment
  • Have I been able to separate what is important to
    me, and what is important to my client?
  • What do I know about the clients cultural
  • What is the clients relationship with his/her
    culture from his/her perspective?
  • What are my stereotypes, beliefs and biases about
    this culture?
  • Have I appropriately consulted with other mental
    health professionals, members from this culture,
    and/or members of the clients family or extended
  • Have I incorporated culturally appropriate
    strategies/techniques with this client?

Empathy can be just a word…
  • or it can be an exceedingly intense attempt to
    capture or understand the inner world of the
    person youre dealing with- with all the nuances
    of feeling and meaning and so on which are real
    of him or her- not real for you but for him or
    her. Thats particularly evident when youre
    dealing with someone of a different culture,
    where their attitudes towards the opposite sex
    are quite different then your own. Can you catch
    the attitude or feeling that person has and
    understand it as it is in him or her? It is a
    very demanding task. And the notion of just
    listening is far from catching what it contains.
    When one is endeavoring to capture the whole
    inner world of this person, that takes all you
    have. It means laying aside something of
    yourself, of your own personal values and
    attitudes in order to really catch the attitudes
    of the other person.-Carl Rogers

Case Study
  • What do you think of Annas level of
  • What might you ask her to find out more about her
  • How might her level of acculturation affect the
    way you might work with her?

  • Berry, J. W.  (1998).  Intercultural relations in
    plural societies.  Canadian Psychology, 40,
  • Berry, J. W.  (2001).  A psychology of
    immigration.  Journal of Social Issues, 57,
  • Don , G. Berry, J. W.  (1994).  Acculturation
    attitudes and acculturative stress of Central
    American refugees.  International Journal of
    Psychology, 29, 57-70.
  • Kress, V. E., Eriksen, K. P., Rayle, A. D., Ford,
    S. J. (2005). The DSM-IV-TR and culture
    Considerations for counselors. Journal of
    Counseling Development. 83, 97-104.
  • Kuo, B. C. H. (2004). Interdependent and
    relational tendencies among Asian clients
    Infusing collectivistic strategies into
    counseling. Guidance Counseling, 19(4),
  • Moore, III, J. L. Constantine, M. G. (2005).
    Development and initial validation of the
    collectivistic coping styles measure with
    African, Asian, and Latin American international
    students. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,
    27(4), 329-347.
  • Rogers, C. (1985). Characteristics of effective
    counseling. Retrieved January 22, 2006, from

  • Shilo, A. M., Kelly, E. W. (1997).
    Individualistic and collective approaches to
    counseling Preference, personal orientation,
    gender, and age. Counseling Values, 41(3),
  • Schoen, A. A. (2005). Culturally sensitive
    counseling for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders.
    Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32(3),
  • Sue, D.W. Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the
    culturally diverse Theory and practice. New
    York Wiley.
  • Triandis, H. C. (2000). Culture and conflict.
    International Journal of Psychology, 35(2),
  • Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism-collectivi
    sm and personality. Journal of Personality,
    69(6), 907-924.
  • Vacc, N. A., DeVaney, S. B., Brendel, J. M.
    (2003). Counseling multicultural and diverse
    populations Strategies for practitioners. New
    York Brunner-Routledge.
  • Williams, B. (2003). The Worldview dimensions
    of individualism and collectivism Implications
    for counseling. Journal of Counseling and
    Development, 81, 371-374.
About PowerShow.com