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Major Influence on the Developing Person


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Title: Major Influence on the Developing Person

Major Influence on the Developing Person
I can make me a man!
  • Dr. Patricia E. Freed

Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7
  • Describe major influences on developing persons
  • Describe influences at different stages of
  • Identify influences that are hazardous/crisis for
    each stage
  • Ways to prevent harm

Influences on Development
  • Life Span Related
  • Cohort Related
  • Non-normative influences
  • Contextual influences
  • Sociocultural
  • Environmental
  • Spiritual/Religious
  • Family

  • First, there are normative age-graded influences
    those correlated highly with age, such as
    physical maturation, commencement of education,
    and parents' death.  LIFE SPAN RELATED
  • Then, there are normative, history-graded
    influences, that is, historical events that
    influence entire age cohorts-economic
    depressions, epidemics, wars, social movements. 
  • Next, there are a host of non-normative
    influences events that have great impact on
    individual lives but that most people escape,
    such as contracting a rare disease, having a
    child with a genetic abnormality, or winning a
    lottery.  NON NORMATIVE
  • Last there are influences which arise from the
    context in which the individual finds himself.

Contextual Influences
Different things influence my development
or and and/or stage of
development At any stage of development - At any
stage of development
Social Influences
  • Social environments shaped by
  • Occupations
  • Economic resources
  • Neighborhoods

Values Beliefs
All developmental dimensions are effected by our
socioeconomic status.
Socioeconomic Levels Subcultural Groups
  • Social Stratification
  • Values and Role expectations
  • Status and Power
  • Health Status
  • Vulnerable populations
  • more illness, lower quality of life, premature
  • lack of resources and exposure to risk
  • Homeless, elderly, children, poor, migrants,
    refugees, immigrants, mentally ill

See SES Website
  • Upper Upper Class - Old Money
  • The Lower Upper Class - Bill Gates
  • Overclass Yuppies Children of Privilege
  • Upper Middle Class
  • Middle Class American Dream
  • Lower Middle or Working
  • Upper lower class
  • The underclass

2005 HHS Poverty Guidelines
SOURCE  Federal Register, Vol. 70, No. 33,
February 18, 2005, pp. 8373-8375.
Cultural Influences
  • The culture and subcultures into which we are
    born encompass and direct us for life.
  • We learn an identity, values, beliefs, norms,
    habits of life, language, relationships, time,
    space, work, play, right wrong and physical and
    mental health practices.

Culture Definitions
  • Culture
  • Manifest culture
  • Customs
  • Ideal culture
  • Regional culture
  • Subculture
  • Ethnic- ethnicity
  • Rural Culture
  • Urban Culture
  • Socioeconomic level
  • Religious culture
  • Family culture
  • EMIC or ETIC
  • Rituals
  • Dialect

These Cuban American women in Miami,
Florida share a subcultural identity that is
reinforced through their language, food, and
other traditions
Know these terms!
  • The sum total of the learned ways of doing,
    feeling and thinking, past and present, of a
    social group within a given period. These ways
    are transmitted from one generation to the next
    and to immigrants who become members of the
  • Cultures have common characteristics.

  • Culture is adaptive
  • Culture is learned
  • Culture is cumulative
  • Cultures change
  • People are not aware of their own culture
  • People do not know all of their own culture
  • Cultures allow a wide range of behavior
  • Cultures dont exist in isolation

See Power Point Show on Study Guide
Culture-Bound Illness
  • Amok
  • Ataqe de nerios
  • Susto
  • Ghost sickness
  • Falling out
  • Bulimia

Read about these in your textbook… very
An Example
  • Does it happen here?
  • Koro Shook Yong
  • Malaysians
  • Chinese

This is not Pleasant!
Also know as Penile Retraction Syndrome Or Penis
Panic Or Shrinking Penis
Shook Yong Koro Case Study
H.K.F. a 34 year old Chinese male, was at a
cinema show when he felt the need to urinate. He
went out to the latrine to relieve himself and
he suddenly felt a loss of feeling in the genital
region. The thought occurred to him that he was
going to have a penile retraction. Sure enough,
he noticed that his penis was getting
shorter... He felt cold in the limbs, and was
weak all over, and his legs gave way under him.
So he sat on the floor, all this time holding
onto his penis. About half an hour later, the
attacks abated. He went to see a medical
specialist and was prescribed some
pills. History At 24 years of age, he exposed
himself to a prostitute, and was infected with
gonorrhea, and since then he had remained
abstinent. He heard of shook yong from his
friends prior to the attack and also heard about
some fatalities during intercourse. Treatment
He was vigorously reassured and given some talk
on sexual anatomy. No further attacks occurred.

Another Koro Story
  • By Vaughan Mon Sep 16th, 2002 at 105653 AM EST
  • A woman in Nigeria narrowly escaped a recent
    lynching from an enraged crowd after a market
    trader claimed she had stolen his penis. This is
    an example of Koro, (as it is most commonly known
    in the West), a belief that the genitals have
    been stolen, or in other parts of the world, that
    they are fatally shrinking into the body.
  • Bizarre as it sounds, the belief in Koro is
    several thousand years old and occurs

An article
  • Earleywine, M. (2001). Cannabis-induced Koro in
    Americans. Addiction, 96(11), 1663-6.

Cultural Adaptation
  • Cultural Shock
  • Assessment Tools

Did you say Catural Adaptation?
4 phases of Culture Shock
  • Honeymoon phase
  • Disenchanted phase
  • Beginning resolution phase
  • Effective function phase

Im new Here.
Brink and Saunders
Assessment Tools
  • Values
  • Beliefs
  • Customs
  • Social Structure
  • Preferences

Core Values
  • Human Nature
  • Person- Nature
  • Time
  • Activity
  • Relational

Textbook Table 5-2
Values Traditional Emerging
  • Romantic notions love, marriage family, self
  • Rugged Individual but cooperative
  • Adheres to social customs, rules, expected
    behavior, etiquette
  • Puritanical- Cleanliness
  • Authoritarian outlook, values respects leaders
  • Books media to develop social conscience
  • Self satisfaction, changing relationships,
  • Do your own thing-more freedom of choice
  • More informal, Less social concern and
    sensitivity for others
  • More sensual, obsession with sex, less concern
    about cleanliness
  • Democratic outlook, questions leadership, shows
    apathy and disrespect.
  • Mass media information systems for personal
    entertainment and education

Textbook Table 5-4
Childrearing and Family Values Poverty
  • Misbehavior important in terms of outcome
  • Lack belief in long-term goals
  • Communication family more physical
  • Parents may be poorly equipped to meet needs of
  • Mother is primary care giver authoritarian
  • Discipline harsh, inconsistent, ridicule
  • Aggressive behavior may be encouraged/restrained
    dependent on consequences to parents
  • Doesnt teach impulse control

Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible Inequality Social
Class and Childrearing. Sociological Review. 67,
Environmental Influences
  • Ecology is the science studying the interactions
    of organisms with their environment and with one
  • It comes from the
  • Greek words
  • oikos (habitat)
  • and logos (science).

Health Threats
  • Environmental Pollution is the release of harmful
    environmental contaminants, or the substances so
    released. Generally the process needs to result
    from human activity to be regarded as pollution.
    Even relatively benign products of human activity
    are liable to be regarded as pollution, if they
    precipitate negative effects later on.

Environmental Pollution
  • Air
  • Water
  • Soil
  • Food
  • Light
  • Noise
  • Surface (Solid waste disposal)
  • Hazardous Wastes
  • Occupational hazards

  • Following the Chernoble disaster there was
    widesrpead radiation exposure in areas of
    Belarus, The Russian Federation, the Ukraine
    resulting in long term health effects. 1800
    adults exposed to radioactive iodine, as children
    have developed thyroid cancer.

Global Warming Health
  • Global Climate Change (heat, flooding,
    hurricanes, drought)
  • Poor, Elderly, Sick Young Children
  • Air Quality
  • Shelter
  • Waste Removal
  • Diseases (insects)
  • Tainted Food and Water

US Environmental Protection Agency Report 2008
Lead Poisoning
  • Minimum of 400,000 children with too much lead in
    their blood.
  • 25 of Houses (24 million homes)
  • Get a Test Kit at the National Safety Council Web
    site http//
  • Matel Recall Toys made in China

CDC Recommendations
  • Testing at Ages 1 and 2
  • Testing at Age 3-6 if
  • never been tested,
  • receive public assistance or WIC or supplemental
    food services,
  • live or frequently visit house built before 1950
  • or l978 and recently remodeled,
  • if they have a brother or sister or playmate with
    lead poisoning
  • Level gt10 ug/dl concern in children begin
  • Level gt20 ug/dl lead poisoning

Prevention How can families reduce the risk of
exposure to lead?
  • Avoid exposure to sources of lead.
  • Do not allow children to chew or mouth painted
    surfaces that may have been painted with
    lead-based paint.
  • If you have a water lead problem, run or flush
    water that has been standing overnight before
    drinking or cooking with it.
  • Some types of paints and pigments that are used
    as make-up or hair coloring contain lead. Keep
    these kinds of products away from children
  • If your home contains lead-based paint or you
    live in an area contaminated with lead, wash
    children's hands and faces often to remove lead
    dusts and soil, and regularly clean the house of
    dust and tracked in soil.
  • Clean all exposed surfaces, rinse with clean
    water, replace mop heads, use vigorous wiping
    right to left (not back and forth).

Environmental Pollution
  • http//
  • http//
  • Example
  • Factory Farming

The Meatrix was a 2005 Webby Award winner, and
has enjoyed a tremendous amount of success on
the independent film festival circuit. In
November 2004, the film won Best Documentary
Short at the Fourteenth Annual Environment Media
Association Awards (EMAs) in Los Angeles. It
also has received awards from the Annecy
International Animated Film Festival, the Gynwood
Foundation, and Media Rights Media That Matters
Film Festival.
  • During the past 15 years the number of hog farms
    in the United States dropped from 600,000 to
    157,000, yet the number of hogs remains almost
    the same.
  • In 1999, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
    reported that 2 percent of the hog farms in the
    country produce over 46 percent of the total
    number of hogs.

Factory Farming
  • By Laura Orlando
  • This article appeared in the July/August 1998
    Dollars and Sense magazine.
  • "One man can take care of two thousand pigs in
    one barn. Twenty pigs to a stall . A hundred
    stalls. I can pay him 25,000 and take home at
    least 20 on my investment, which is hovering at
    around 650,000 including the pigs." Jerry
    Sorokowski spat on the ground and dreamed of
    money." Multiply those barns and you multiply
    your money," he continued, "factory farms are
    here to stay."

  • "The odor's usually worse in the mornings around
    630--that's the time I get up and go out to get
    the newspaper and it'll hit you in your face some
    mornings when you walk out. And that's how I
    start my day--just angry that I walk out my door
    and smell this mess and have no control over it.
    And another time it's really bad is usually
    around 730 or 8 at night--it's just awful then
    it's like a cloud rolling in."

Threats to Public Health Swine Farms
  • Source Hogfarm Lagoons (spills, seepage,
    overflowing, excessive amounts) swine
    mortalities disposal processes
  • Pollution Soil, Air and Water
  • Contaminates Nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy
    metals, virus, fecal coliform bacteria, toxins,
    hydrogen sulfide, cryptosporidium, Pfiesteria
  • Effects on Human Development
    Methemoglobinemia (blue-baby syndrome)
  • Increased risk of
    spontaneous abortion
  • Human Health Risks Short term memory loss
    or brain damage or other cognitive impairments
  • Bronchitis, Coughing (as much as 2 miles
  • Skin
    irritations, Sore eyes
  • Contributes to spread of antibiotic
    resistance disease
  • More than 40 diseases associated with manure
  • Flu-like symptoms-death
  • Tension, depression, anger and fatigue  
  • Evidence Base
  • Two studies have looked generally at the medical
    conditions of residents living near swine factory
    farms. One survey of residents living in the
    vicinity of a 2,500-sow facility found much
    higher reports of respiratory problems than those
    recorded in neighborhoods of farms where no
    livestock was raised (CDC,1998)

Guilty or Not?
Pfiesteria-like organisms- some Toxic
Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidiosis Parasitic
  • People who are most likely to become infected
    with Cryptosporidium include
  • Children who attend day care centers, including
    diaper-aged children
  • Child care workers
  • Parents of infected children
  • International travelers
  • Backpackers, hikers, and campers who drink
    unfiltered, untreated water
  • Swimmers who swallow water while swimming in
    swimming pools, lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams
  • People who drink from shallow, unprotected wells
  • People who swallow water from contaminated
  • Contaminated water includes water that has not
    been boiled or filtered. Several community-wide
    outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been linked
    to drinking municipal water or recreational water
    contaminated with Cryptosporidium.

Spiritual Influences
  • Spiritual
  • Religious

The Self is the ultimate unity of the personality
symbolized by the circle, The cross, and the
mandala - Carl Jung
  • Belief system about Divine or Supreme force that
    commands worship obedience
  • Comprehensive philosophy or code that guides
  • Set of practices related to beliefs
  • Affiliation with organized body of worshipers
  • Group of people with established practice related
    to spiritual beliefs

All Religions
  • World view, way of perceiving reality, meaning of
    life, existence
  • Authority, source of power
  • Scriptures or sacred words
  • Ethical code
  • Group identity for adherents
  • Aspirations or expectations
  • Ideas about what follows death

Great Chart Table 7-1, p.185
Religious Influences
  • Dietary Laws
  • Ideas about illness
  • Ideas about health
  • Cleanliness
  • Family relationships and behavior
  • Sexuality
  • Death

The beliefs and behavioral imperatives in turn
effect human development.
Religion Influence Attitudes and Behavior
  • Cleanliness
  • Money
  • Work
  • Political behavior
  • Family
  • Childrearing
  • Right and Wrong

  • Quality beyond association with a religion
  • Involves inspiration and reverence for something
    beyond self, a sense of awe
  • Meaning and purpose in life
  • Harmony in relationships with the universe
  • Strives for answer about the infinite
  • Hamilton Jackson (l998)

  • Stages of spiritual development
  • Traditional
  • Christian - Fowler's six stages of faith
  • Buddhist - Ten ox-herding pictures
  • Hindu - Seven chakras
  • Sufi - Seven levels of self

Discipline Begins
In Harness
Faced Round
Laissez Faire
All Forgotten
The Solitary Moon
Both Vanished
The Ten Ox Herding Pictures- Buddhist Stages of
Spiritual Development
Stages of Spiritual Development
  • Psychological
  • Egocentric
  • Sociocentric
  • Worldcentric
  • Transpersonal

Ken Wilber
Integral Theory of Consciousness Transpersonal
psychology/philosophy Brief History of Everything

  • A nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical
    pain or render physical care - she ministers to
    the whole person.
  • The existence of suffering, whether physical,
    mental or spiritual is the proper concern of the
  • Travelbee, J.(1971). Interpersonal relations in
    nursing, 159

Spiritual Assessment (Questions 7-2)
  • Respect client as a person with
    spiritual/religious needs who has a right to have
    them met.
  • Use knowledge and experience as a beginning-
  • Your goal is not to be a spiritual expert but to
    help facilitate spiritual care!
  • Do not overwhelm and do not antagonize!
  • Do not preach or reconstruct.

9 Behaviors- Call for Help!
  • Withdrawn, sullen or depressed
  • Restless, irritable, complaining
  • Restless, excitable, garrulous
  • Shows undue anxiety about self
  • Take turn to worse, critical, terminal
  • Shows interest and asks for clergy
  • Inquires
  • Has few visitors, card, flowers
  • Has had (faces) a particularly traumatic or
    threatening experience

Spiritual Distress Nursing Diagnosis Actual or
  • Person is experiences a disturbance in the belief
    system that is his or her source of strength.
  • Evidence
  • Expressing anger at God
  • Discouragement, despair
  • Feeling spiritually empty, ambivalent
  • Hopelessness

Spiritual Nursing Care
  • Interventions Tailored to unique personal coping
    mechanisms reported to have helped in the past in
    partnership with patient. Be careful about
    participating in worship or ritual because of
    potential role boundary confusion.
  • Cultural Knowledge Knowledge of customs,
    ceremonies, cleanliness/hygiene rules, and food
    laws will be of practical value.
  • Contraindicated
  • When psychotic or delusional
  • When clear they do not want to participate
  • When minors or parents are unaware that their
    children are participating in activity contrary
    to their denomination and faith (legal
  • Ethical Issues
  • Overstepping your own practice (you are not
  • Limits of research
  • Avoid your own value imposition
  • Must be voluntary and specifically asked for
  • Church-state separation (avoid in civic settings-
    governmental role)
  • Importance of documentation

From Mohr, WK (2006). Spiritual issues in
psychiatric care. Perspectives in Psychiatric
Care 42(3), 174-182.
Pastoral Care
  • Ministry of care and counseling provided by
    pastors, chaplains and other religious leaders to
    members of their church, congregation or persons
    within a faith-based institution.
  • This ministry can range anywhere from home
    visitation to formal counseling provided by
    pastors who are licensed to offer counseling
  • Members of the Interdisciplinary HC team.
  • This is also frequently referred to as Spiritual

Group Activity Describe a Family Disaster
Plan What should be in a Disaster kit?
Directions Contents
Group Activity Describe a Family Disaster
Plan What should be in a Disaster kit?
Plan where to seek shelter and safety for family
and pets. How to contact each other if separated
(help numbers on cell phones) List of diagnoses,
identification bracelet, medications, emergency
numbers Tote kit with Supplies 3-7 days supply
of Rx flashlight, portable radio
batteries, extra pair of prescription glasses
sunglasses, hearing aids, bottled
water, games or activities for children, copies
of important family documents/pictures adhesive
bandages, tissues, essential hygiene products
UPDATE THE KIT What about Pets?

Page 102 Text
Dont Forget
  • Friday
  • Dr. Westhus
  • Principles of
  • Development
  • Be sure you
    Signed the Role!