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Reef Paleontology and

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Hermatypic build reefs and possess zooxanthellae (= zooxanthellate) ... Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. Mid Carboniferous - revitalized assemblage. Crinoids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reef Paleontology and


1
Reef Paleontology and Coral Evolution
2
Taxonomy of Symbiosis
3
Taxonomy of Symbiosis
Clade A
Clade B
Clade C
Clade D
Clade F
Clade G
4
Naming Corals
Hermatypic ? build reefs and possess
zooxanthellae ( zooxanthellate)
Ahermatypic ? dont build reefs or possess
zooxanthellae ( azooxanthellate)
BUT
- not all zooxanthellate corals build reefs
- some azooxanthellate corals build reefs
5
Naming Corals
z-corals ? possess zooxanthellae (
zooxanthellate)
az-corals ? dont possess zooxanthellae (
azooxanthellate)
Third group
- can exist with or without symbionts
(facultative)
Apozooxanthellate
e.g. Oculina
6
Middle to late Precambrian
Algal Reefs - From cyanophytes
-layer of algae forms
-sediment is trapped
-a second algal layer grows
- more sediment is trapped
7
Middle to late Precambrian
Algal Reefs - Stromatolites
8
Precambrian-Cambrian Transition
Archaeocyathan Reefs
9
Ordovician
Solenopora -a coralline algae
Colonial Bryozoa
Stromatoporoids (stony sponges)
10
Ordovician (2)
Stony cnidarians - first of corals
Tabulate form
Rugose form
11
Stable association for 130 my
coral
sponge
algae
12
Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous
13
Mid Carboniferous - revitalized assemblage

Crinoids
Brachiopods (lamp shells)
Sponges
14
Permian Extinction
Ended the second successful reef association
bryozoan
sponge
algae
15
Evolution of sceractinian corals
originations
extinctions
Jurassic
Triassic
Number of species
16
Evolution of sceractinian corals
17
Jurassic
Scleractinian corals
Coralline algae
Stromatoporids
18
Jurassic Tethys Sea
19
Cretaceous
Rudists
20
Cretaceous
Rudists
Scleractinian corals
Stromatoporids
Coralline algae
30 my
21
Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary
-meteorite hits earth
Mass extinctions
22
Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary
Scleractinian corals
Coralline algae
Rudists
23
Cenozoic - Palaeocene
z-corals more severely affected
24
Why loss of coral diversity?
Temperature decline
25
Cenozoic - Eocene
Regeneration of z-coral type reefs
26
Eocene to Present
Five distinct faunal periods
27
Evolution of Scleractinia
Problem
?
Permian extinction
First scleractinian fossils
28
Evolution of Scleractinia
Hypotheses for Ancestor of Scleractinia
1) Rugosan
-came from some rugosan ancestor
29
Evolution of Scleractinia
Hypotheses for Ancestor of Scleractinia
1) Rugosan
-came from some rugosan ancestor
Problems
Rugose coral Scleractinian
Tetrameric Hexameric
Calcitic Aragonitic
30
Evolution of Scleractinia
Hypotheses for Ancestor of Scleractinia
2) Scleractiniamorph
Numidiaphyllum
- aragonite ? calcite
  • shares structural features with Scleractinia

Problem - 14 my gap
31
Evolution of Scleractinia
Hypotheses for Ancestor of Scleractinia
3) Naked coral
- presumes a non-calcifying anemone
Current relationships of scleractinians,
zoanthids, corallimorphs and actinarians
Actinaria
Corallimorphia
Numidiaphyllia
Scleractinia
Zooanthidea
32
Evolution of Scleractinia
Hypotheses for Ancestor of Scleractinia
3) Naked coral
- presumes a non-calcifying anemone
Support
  • anatomical similarities between living
  • Scleractinians and Zoantharians
  • molecular similarities between living
  • Scleractinians, Actinarians and Zoantharians

33
Two major zones of reef diversity
Caribbean
Indo-Pacific
34
North American
Caribbean
Bonaire
Cocos
South American
Nazca
35
North American
Caribbean
Cocos
South American
Nazca
Subduction
Thrust-fault
Strike-slip
36
Bonaire Reefs
Brandaris
37
Quaternary
Recent 11,000
Wisconsonian 75,000
Sangamonian 130,000
Illinoisian 180,000
Yarmouthian 380,000
Kansan 410.000
Aftonian 600,000
Nebraskan 800,000 to 1,000,000
limestone cap
undifferentiated terrain
38
(No Transcript)
39
Bonaire Reefs
Bonaire
Grand Cayman
40
Bonaire Reefs
Few sandy beaches
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