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Anatomy and Physiology I Lab BSC 2085L Laboratory 10

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Mucus membrane lining eyelids and sclera. Lacrimal apparatus. Medial and lateral canthus. Corners of eyelids. Lacrimal Apparatus. Lacrimal Gland ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy and Physiology I Lab BSC 2085L Laboratory 10


1
Anatomy and Physiology I Lab BSC 2085L Laboratory
10
  • Visual System
  • Eye Anatomy and Physiology
  • Ear Anatomy and Physiology

Associate Professor Pamela L. Pannozzo FA
2006 pannozzp_at_pbcc.edu
2
Visual System
  • Eye
  • Accessory structures
  • Eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes, tear glands
  • Protect eyes from sunlight and damaging particles
  • Optic nerve (II)
  • Tracts
  • Pathways
  • Eyes respond to light and initiate action
    potentials

3
Accessory Structures of Eye
  • Eyelids
  • Protect and lubricate
  • Conjunctiva
  • Mucus membrane lining eyelids and sclera
  • Lacrimal apparatus
  • Medial and lateral canthus
  • Corners of eyelids

4
Lacrimal Apparatus
  • Lacrimal Gland
  • Produces tears to moisten, lubricate, wash
  • Lacrimal Ducts
  • Collect tears
  • Lacrimal Canaliculi
  • Collects tears
  • Lacrimal Sac
  • Empties into nasolacrimal duct
  • Nasolacrimal duct
  • Opens into nasal cavity

5
Anatomy of the Eye
  • Three tissue layers
  • Fibrous connective tissue Consists of sclera and
    cornea
  • Vascular and muscle tissue Consists of choroid,
    lens, ciliary body, iris
  • Nervous tissue Consists of retina

6
Anatomy of the Eye
  • Retina
  • Contains neurons sensitive to light
  • Macula lutea or fovea centralis Area of greatest
    visual acuity
  • Optic disc Blind spot
  • Compartments
  • Anterior Aqueous humor
  • Posterior Vitreous humor
  • Lens
  • Held by suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary
    muscles
  • Transparent
  • Sclera
  • White outer layer, maintains shape, protects
    internal structures, provides muscle attachment
    point, continuous with cornea
  • Cornea Avascular, transparent, allows light to
    enter eye and bends and refracts light
  • Choroid
  • Iris Controls light entering pupil smooth
    muscle
  • Ciliary muscles Control lens shape smooth muscle

7
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
8
Functions of the Complete Eye
  • Eye functions like a camera
  • Iris allows light into eye
  • Lens, cornea, humors focus light onto retina
  • Lens shape adjusted to focus light on fovea
    centralis
  • Light striking retina is converted into action
    potentials relayed to brain
  • Brain perceives visual spectrum of
    electromagnetic radiation 400-700 nm
  • Rods-sensitive to light, night vision
  • Cones-color and sharp images red, green, blue

9
Focus and Accommodation
10
Visual Pathways
11
Auditory System Functions
  • Hearing
  • Convert sound waves into action potentials
  • Interpret action potentials as sound (temporal
    lobe)
  • Equilibrium
  • Detect body position, stabilize body in space
    (temporal lobe and cerebellum)

12
Auditory System
  • External ear Hearing terminates at eardrum
  • Middle ear Hearing contains auditory ossicles
  • Inner ear Hearing and balance interconnecting
    fluid-filled tunnels and chambers

13
The Ear
  • External ear
  • Auricle or pinna elastic cartilage
  • External auditory meatus
  • Middle ear
  • Tympanic membrane
  • Vibrated by sound waves
  • Ossicles
  • Malleus, incus, stapes transmit vibrations
  • Auditory or eustachian tube
  • Opens into pharynx, equalizes pressure

14
Inner Ear
  • Oval Window
  • Transmits fluid waves in cochlea
  • Cochlea
  • Converts sound waves to action potentials
  • Organ of Corti
  • Semicircular Canals
  • Balance, rotational movement of head
  • Vestibule
  • Balance, acceleration and deceleration

15
Structure of Cochlea
16
Hearing
  • Vibration of tympanic membrane
  • Vibration of malleus, incus, stapes, oval window
  • Fluid waves produced in cochlea
  • Vibration of basilar membrane of Organ of Corti
    causes action potentials in hair cells
  • Action potentials transmitted to temporal lobe

17
Balance
  • Static Equilibrium
  • Vestibule
  • Evaluates position of head and movement through
    bending of hair cells
  • Rotational Movement
  • Evaluates movements of head by pressure of
    gelatinous matrix in canals against hair cells

18
CNS Pathways for Balance
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