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Bild 1

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The electronically excited condensed matter named Rydberg Matter ... Buss et al. (1993) UIR type A = nebulae, galaxies. Bregman et al. (1989) Black curves: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bild 1


1
Rydberg Matter a common form of matter in the
Universe Leif Holmlid Abstract The
electronically excited condensed matter named
Rydberg Matter seems to be a state of matter of
the same significance as liquid or solid matter.
In fact, it may be the most common form of matter
in the Universe. In this talk, spectroscopic
signatures from space will be discussed and
described in terms of transitions in Rydberg
Matter, both in emission, absorption, and
stimulated Raman. The interpretations are based
on experimental results. Recent experiments give
proof for metallic atomic hydrogen, of interest
not only for intergalactic space but possibly
also for understanding planets like Jupiter.
2
Rydberg Matter forms planar clusters
A perspective view of a cluster of Rydberg Matter
with 19 atoms or molecules. The core ions in
space will in general be H and H2, with one
electron per atom or molecule excited to the RM
region. The clusters are formed by interacting
circular Rydberg species
3
Experimental verification RM in a tunable cavity
- the RM laser
The RM laser is a thermal laser, converting
thermal energy to laser light in the
IR. Extremely broadband tunable, 800 16000 nm
and longer.
Schematical drawing of the setup for observing
the spectra of stimulated emission. The grating
is turned under computer control. The chopper and
end mirror can be replaced by a spinning mirror.
Publications on stimulated emission from RM L.
Holmlid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 367 (2003) 556-560. S.
Badiei and L. Holmlid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 376
(2003) 812-817. L. Holmlid, J. Phys. B At. Mol.
Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 357-374.
Emitters for RM here alkali doped metal
oxide catalysts, otherwise carbon w. alkali atoms
4
Metal-like conduction band with delocalized
electrons that give the bonding
Transitions for the stimulated emission
Two-electron processes in general
Energy diagram for RM
5
Stimulated emission signal from cavity
n2 40-80 n4
Cutoff due to MCT detector
6
Stimulated emission from RM
n2 n4
RM theory agrees well with UIR bands AA 358
(2000) 276-286
7
UIR band structure Stimulated Raman with He-Ne
laser, backscattered
Calculated from Raman shift
Black curves calculated from RM model to fit
UIR type A nebulae, galaxies Bregman et al.
(1989)
UIR type B carbon-rich stars Buss et al. (1993)
Astrophys. J. 548 (2001) L249-L252.
8
Peaks of unidentified infrared bands UIR bands
High upper level due to resonance with Rydberg
state stimulated emission n 9 5 and 7 5.
Comparison of transitions in the RM laser and in
space (from Kahanpää et al. 2003)
9
Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) seen in
absorption against reddened stars More than 280
bands with widths 0.5 140 cm-1 at 400 -900
nm Process for DIB transitions
co-planar state
n3
n4
L. Holmlid, Rydberg Matter as the diffuse
interstellar band (DIB) carriers in interstellar
space the model and accurate calculations of
band centers. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6 (2004)
2048-2058.
10
DIB band heads
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6 (2004) 2048-2058.
11
Best evidence 60 sharp DIB bands
12
Intensities for all DIBs
X overlap with other transitions
Band heads
Low intensity for states nn
n4-1
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6 (2004) 2048-2058.
13
DARK MATTER RM? H atom in RM with n80
occupies 1012 larger volume than in ground
state.. Badiei Holmlid, Rydberg Matter in
space - low density condensed dark matter.
Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 333 (2002)
360-364. Faraday rotation in intergalactic
space Badiei Holmlid, Magnetic field in the
intracluster medium Rydberg matter with almost
free electrons. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 335
(2002) L94-L98.
Stack of RM clusters, stable at low temperature.
Attracted and aligned by magnetic forces, held
apart by electrostatic forces
14
Quantized redshifts at 21 cm wavelength Observed
in the local supercluster of galaxies
Redshift from stimulated Raman in translating
electron states in RM clusters
Astrophys. Space Sci. 291 (2004) 99-111
15
Experimental studies of redshifts in RM
20-60 K
Lead salt diode lasers single-mode Dn 10-4 cm-1
Appl. Phys. B 79 (2004) 871-877. Similar
studies Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001)
013817-1-013817-10. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26
(2004) 103-111.
16
RM emitter temp.
Redshifts in transmission through cold RM Size
0.02 cm-1
Etalon tempe- rature T coeff. 10-2 cm-1 K-1
17
Redshifts 0.02 cm-1 in reflection from deposited
(cold) layer of RM Hot RM gives blueshifts
instead.
Redshifts in space Calculations using
stimulated Raman theory from these results give
redshifts of at least the same size as observed
Appl. Phys. B 79 (2004) 871-877
18
Pulsed laser fragmentation of RM
ns pulses excite pairs of electrons and give
Coulomb explosions. The smaller cluster/
particle moves away with most of the kinetic
energy
d 2.9 n2 a0 W e2/(4pe0d)
Low excitation levels in RM are studied
19
Hydrogen molecule RM
RM Coulomb explosion experiments
Wang Holmlid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 325 (2000)
264-268, Chem. Phys. 261 (2000) 481-48, ibid 277
(2002) 201-210 Badiei Holmlid Int. J. Mass
Spectrom. 220 (2002) 127-136, Chem. Phys. 282
(2002) 137-146.
20
Hydrogen atom RM at n 1
n 1 is the lowest possible state of RM which
is the same as metallic hydrogen
9.4 eV from Coulomb explosion
d 150 8 pm
Badiei Holmlid, Phys. Lett. A 327 (2004) 186-191
21
Multiple repulsions lt--gt 2 (18 ev), 3 (27 eV)
Very high proton energies
  • Hydrodynamic
  • acceleration
  • gt 1 keV for H
  • observed in
  • experiments with
  • acceleration
  • lengths of 1 cm
  • Cosmic rays?

Badiei Holmlid, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16
(2004) 7017-7023.
22
IR observation from comets Ultra-red matter
detected might be RM. RM emits selectively in the
IR, as seen in the RM laser
Deep Space flyby at Comet 19P/Borrelly
23
Polarization at comets
Reflectance of sun from comets, visible light,
unpolarized
Negative polarization possible?
for RM
The observed polarization P is much too low for
almost any assumption about particle size,
shape and composition. Planar RM clusters
probably have few polarizability elements (but
large!) which gives good agreement.
two classes
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