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An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics EFM

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The study of flow and transport in surface water, groundwater, ... 3. sulphide-metal precipitation by anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria. Brackish Water Cap ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics EFM


1
An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics
(EFM)
Mirmosadegh Jamali Department of Civil
Engineering Sharif University of Technology March
8, 2003
2
What is EFM?
  • The study of flow and transport in surface water,
    groundwater, and atmosphere.
  • Environmental significance
  • Heat and mass transfer
  • Turbulence and mixing
  • Stratification

3
Stratification
  • Most fluids are density stratified
  • Variations in temperature, salinity, etc.
  • Very small density differences
  • Enhance horizontal motions
  • Inhibit vertical mixing
  • Have important environmental consequences

4
Research in EFM
  • MIT
  • Stanford University
  • University of California at Berkeley
  • University of British Columbia

5
Examples of topics in EFM
  • Dispersion of contaminants in rivers, lakes,
    seas, groundwater, and atmosphere
  • Dynamics of lakes and reservoirs
  • Internal waves
  • Selective withdrawal
  • Two-layer hydraulics
  • Wave interaction
  • Hydrodynamic Stability
  • Numerical, analytical, or laboratory modeling

6
Mixing in rivers
7
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8
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9
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10
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11
Mixing in atmosphere
12
Mixing in reservoirs
13
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14
Wind-induced mixing
15
Seasonal cycle
16
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17
Numerical Simulation
18
Wave-induced mixing
19
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20
Mixing in coastal waters
21
Ocean outfalls
22
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23
Mixing in tailings ponds
24
Island Copper Empty
25
Closure Plan
ARD
  • Flooded pit as passive treatment system for ARD
  • 1. dilution.
  • 2. neutralization.
  • 3. sulphide-metal precipitation by anaerobic
    sulphate reducing bacteria.

Local Precipitation
7 m
Brackish Water Cap
Buoyant ARD Plume
Anoxic Salt Water
215 m
26
Island Copper Waterfall
27
Island Copper Full
28
Profiles in the Pit Lake
Upper Layer
Intermediate Layer
Depth (m)
Lower Layer
29
Selective Withdrawal
30
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31
Selective-withdrawal system
Selective withdrawal system installed in 1995
Hungry Horse dam, built in 1952
32
Internal Waves
  • A major type of motion within a stratified body
  • Play an important role in mixing and transport in
    reservoir
  • Long characteristic time-scale

33
Wave modes in a two-layer fluid
34
Standing surface and internal waves
  • Photos
  • 1st external mode
  • 1st internal mode
  • 2nd external mode
  • 2nd internal mode
  • 3rd internal mode

35
Interaction of Waves
36
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37
Two-layer Hydraulics
38
Exprimental Simulation
Numerical Simulation
39
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40
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41
Hamilton Harbour Side
42
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43
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44
Hydrodynamic Stability
45
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46
Kelvin-Helmholtz Billows
47
Conclusions
  • Many environmental problems are fluid mechanics
    problems
  • EFM is a fast-growing multidisciplinary field in
    fluid mechanics
  • Many unexplored problems in EFM
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