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Islam

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'The tyranny of a sultan for a hundred years causes less damage than one year's ... Bastion of Eastern Independence. Sufism, mystical variant of Islam ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islam


1
Islam Democracy
  • Islamic Civilizations Compatibility with
    Democratic Governance

2
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3
Submission
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions
  • Bernard Lewis
  • Islam weak civil societies
  • 12th century Ghazali
  • The tyranny of a sultan for a hundred years
    causes less damage than one years tyranny
    exerted by the subjects against each other

4
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5
The Standard Revised Version
  • Irans Islamic Revolution
  • Islamic ideal
  • Sacred over Secular
  • Ignores differences between Shia Sunni (not to
    mention Sufi other) versions of Islam
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

6
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7
Islam as Civilization
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions
  • Samuel P. Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations
  • Islam as Civilization
  • Humiliation Resistance
  • Islam as holistic guide to life

8
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9
Civilization as Irrelevant
  • Francis Fukuyamas The End of History
  • Liberalism is a rational universal truth
  • G. W. F. Hegels struggle for recognition
  • Liberal democracy replaces the irrational desire
    to be recognized as greater than others with a
    rational desire to be recognized as equal.
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

10
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11
The Importance of Civil Society
  • Robert Putnams Making Democracy Work
  • Social capital
  • Robert Hefner applies this to Islamic societies
  • Ulama as fluid and fractious
  • Democracy needs Islamic justification for
    legitimacy
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

12
The Islamic Republic of
Iran
13
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14
Constitutional Monarchy
  • Qajars 1794-1925
  • Constitutional Revolution 1905-9
  • Belgian model
  • Shiism Council of Guardians
  • Colonel Reza Khan 1921, 25-41
  • Mossadeq the coup of 1953
  • Muhammad Reza 1941-1979
  • the people and their uncoerced sic consent
    became the basis of legitimacy. Regardless of the
    extent of its realization, this proved to be the
    most far-reaching, emblematic, and resonating
    legacy of the Constitutional Revolution . . .
    becoming a canonical principle difficult to
    ignore Fakhreddin Azimi
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

15
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16
Islamic Revolution
  • Family Protection Act, White Revolution,
    Resurgence Party
  • Bloody Friday (1978) general strike
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Komeini
  • Mostazafin (the dispossessed)
  • Velayat-e faqih (guardianship of the juriconsult)
  • Ayatollah Ali Khomenei
  • Theory of terror
  • Commander in Chief
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

17
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18
Khordad Revolution
  • 1997 Presidential election
  • Sayyid Muhammad Khatami
  • 2000 elections for the 6th Majles
  • 2001 reelection, despite frustration
  • 2004 elections for the 7th Majles
  • 2005 elections of Mahmoud Ahmedinejad
  • Islamic populism
  • Outsider appeal
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

19
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20
Youth in Iran
  • Unrest and Protest at Tehran University
  • Double lives
  • Influence of modern communication technology
  • artistic expression
  • Offside by Jafar Panahi in 2005 (inspired by his
    daughter in 2002)
  • Persepolis movie by Marjane Satrapie Vincent
    Paronnaud in 2007 (based on her graphic novel,
    which chronicles her growing up through Islamic
    Revolution)
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

21
Turkey
22
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23
The Ottoman Empire
  • Bastion of Eastern Independence
  • Sufism, mystical variant of Islam
  • Brief period of domination, post-WWI
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

24
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25
Ataturk
  • Mustafa Kemal, Soldier from Macedonia
  • Involved in Revolutionary Movement within the
    Ottoman army
  • Emerged as leader after Turkish War for
    Independence (1918-23)
  • Nationalism, Secularism (laiklik), Modernization,
    European integration
  • adoption of Western legal codes from Germany,
    Italy, and Switzerland, together with the Latin
    alphabet and the Western calendar, Western
    holidays, and Western measuring systems
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

26
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27
Justice and Development Party
  • Roots in outlawed Islamist party
  • Won 2/3 of parliamentary seats
  • Only 34 (with low turnout)
  • but next largest was only 19
  • Scandals involving governing coalition had
    angered electorate
  • AKP able to form broad coalition (symbolized by
    its name)
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

28
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29
Turkeys Tigers
  • Rising class of entrepreneurs benefiting from
    globalization and free market principles
  • Many are simultaneously religiously and socially
    conservative
  • Influence of economic liberalization is profound
  • PBS Wide Angle Turkeys Tigers
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions

30
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31
In Conclusion . . .
  • Neither uniquely submissive nor resistant, but
    economically motivated
  • Accountability Efficiency
  • Benefit of Islams pre-existing principle of
    social justice
  • Relations with West not fundamental to adoption
    of liberalism
  • Theory
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Deductions
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