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Stories, studies and scholarship: a summary of the literature on the relationship between teaching a

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Title: Stories, studies and scholarship: a summary of the literature on the relationship between teaching a


1
Stories, studies and scholarship a summary of
the literature on the relationship between
teaching and research
Andy Lloyd (Assistant Registrar Learning and
Teaching)
2
Aim
  • Strategic objective (7)
  • To ensure that learning and teaching are research
    and evidence-led.

3
Aim
  • Research Evidence

4
The research evidence
  • Google research-led teaching over 8,000 hits
  • Google evidence-based learning about 4,400
  • Everyone has a view
  • No two views are the same
  • Different schools of thought have emerged

5
This is not new
  • to discover and to teach are distinct functions
    they are also distinct gifts, and not commonly
    found united in the same person (Newman 1853)
  • the teacher does not exist for the sake of the
    student both teacher and student have their
    justification in the common pursuit of knowledge,
    and hence there is a unity of research and
    teaching Humboldt (1809)

6
The plan the research evidence
  • The research on students views
  • The good research good teaching debate
  • Strategies for enhancement
  • Conclusions

7
What students say
  • Not a huge literature
  • Mainly based on focus groups and interviews
  • The importance of perceptions
  • Motivation to study important
  • Inconclusive outcomes?

8
The student view
  • A diverse student population (e.g. Level of
    study, discipline, mode of attendance, range of
    learning opportunities)
  • clear evidence … of students valuing learning in
    a research-based environment (Jenkins 2004)
  • Evidence that … institutions and departments may
    not be effectively supporting students to obtain
    maximum value from these opportunities, or
    managing the negative impacts (Jenkins 2004)

9
Good research good teaching
  • A mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies
  • Qualitative
  • Often focussed within particular cultural and
    organisational settings
  • Need to be clear about the design and orientation
    of studies
  • Quantitative
  • What is being measured?
  • the problem of the teaching-research link is not
    only multidimensional, but that almost none of
    the dimensions lend themselves to scientific
    approaches for their solution (Elton, 2000)

10
Hattie and Marsh
  • the relationship between research and teaching is
    zero
  • based on
  • Analysis of research productivity and teaching
    effectiveness
  • a meta-analysis of 58 previously published
    studies from different sources

11
Hattie and Marsh
  • the connection between an institutions research
    activities and its teaching is indirect, and
    there is ample evidence of the highest quality
    teaching being achieved in circumstances which
    are not research-intensive
  • it is not necessary to be active in cutting edge
    research to be an excellent teacher
  • (Department for Education and Skills 2003)

12
Hattie and Marsh
  • Marsh horrified at how this research was used
    in the While Paper
  • BUT, they also said …
  • The goal should not be publish or perish, or
    teach or impeach, but we beseech you to both
    publish and teach effectively Thus,
    institutions need to reward creativity,
    commitment, investigativeness, and critical
    analysis in teaching and research and
    particularly value these attributes when they
    occur in both teaching and research Hattie and
    Marsh, 1996)
  • Need to purposefully create and enhance links

13
Strategies for enhancement
  • i.e. how to link teaching and research, ways of
    informing practice
  • e.g. Jenkins and Zetter (2003) - UK Boyer
    (1990) - USA Zubrick, Reid and Rossiter (2001) -
    Australia
  • Areas to be considered
  • Content of curricula
  • The range of learning opportunities
  • The learning environment
  • Pedagogic research

14
The content of curricula
  • Need to acknowledge
  • Disciplinary differences
  • Level
  • Situation / context
  • little evidence to suggest that synergies
    between teaching and research were managed or
    promoted a departmental or institutional level
    (JM Consulting 2000)

15
The range of learning opportunities
  • Suggested strategies
  • Development of research skills
  • The introduction of enquiry/problem-led
    approaches
  • Re-run research projects
  • Introduce learning activities that replicate
    research
  • Invite students to staff research seminars
  • Undergraduate research opportunities programmes
    (UROPs)
  • Others?

16
The learning environment
  • A quality and extensive range of physical and
    virtual learning resources
  • An accessible, fast, and reliable IT network
  • Access to laboratories
  • Research … consistently demonstrates an
    association between students perceptions of
    their learning environment and the quality of
    their achievements (Trigwell 2001)

17
Pedagogic research
  • pedagogic research and its outcomes could play
    an important role in strengthening the link
    (Elton 2001)
  • How?
  • Use of research outcomes in teaching practice
  • Evaluation and research into teaching practice
  • Action research, researching into ones own
    teaching
  • Most teaching innovation currently appears to be
    intuitive rather than informed by theory (LTSN
    Psychology Centre 2001)
  • Do educational researchers make the best
    teachers?

18
New challenges (1)
  • Can the nexus be strengthened?
  • Practical steps to enhance the relationship
  • A two-way relationship
  • Need to avoid adopting a deficit culture
  • QAA and enhancement

19
New challenges (2)
  • Students
  • A more diverse student population
  • Possible impact of fees
  • The net generation

20
A final quote
  • There is a danger now that if we keep running
    RAEs the whole concept of a university in which
    teaching is informed by world-class research is
    under threat because it will produce more and
    more specialists in research who have less and
    less contact with undergraduates because of their
    need to compete globally in research
  • Professor Michael Sterling - Vice-Chancellor and
    Principal Birmingham University and Chair of the
    Russell Group (Quoted in the Guardian Education
    Supplement 09/11/04, p. 18)
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