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Introduction to Ecology contd

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Townsend et al. 2003 Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and ... autecology - relation of individual organism to environment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Ecology contd


1
Introduction to Ecology contd
2
The Fundamental Equation of Ecology Harper 1977
  • ? N B D I E
  • Change in Number Births Deaths Immigration
    - Emigration

John L. Harper 1925-2009
3
Some Definitions of Terms
  • environment - biotic and abiotic factors that
    influence organisms
  • organism - individual living thing
  • population - many individuals of one species
    living close enough to each other to potentially
    interbreed
  • community - all interacting populations in a
    particular habitat - includes plants, animals,
    decomposer microbes - pond or forest community -
    in practice often used when 2 or more species
    discussed

4
Some Definitions of Terms
  • ecosystem - community plus abiotic factors -
    nutrients, water, soil, etc. - pond ecosystem
  • habitat - place where microbe, plant or animal
    lives
  • biosphere - the earth
  • autecology - relation of individual organism to
    environment
  • synecology - relation of populations or species
    to other populations or species

5
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6
How to study ecology?
7
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8
Scientific method is a repetitive process that
leads to the building of theories
Initial Observation
reasoning?
New Hypothesis
Hypothesis
New Experiment
Experiment
New Observation
Observation/ Data Analysis
Hypothesis not Supported
Interpretation
Final Hypothesis Supported
Theory
9
Creosote and sage brush desert
10
Diagram of desert plant root growth
11
Statistics - a powerful tool for analyzing data
  • 1. Descriptive Statistics - provide an overview
  • of the attributes of a data set. These
    include
  • measurements of central tendency (frequency
  • histograms, mean, median, mode) and
  • dispersion (range, variance standard
  • deviation)
  • 2. Inferential Statistics - provide measures of
    how
  • well your data support your hypothesis and
    if
  • your data are generalizable beyond what was
  • tested (significance tests)

12
Differences Between Means
Asks whether samples come from populations with
different means
13
Observational Studies
pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1209/studyunit_design.htm
14
Watering Hole showing Piosphere
15
Model of Piosphere
16
Lab Experiments
17
Field Experiments
Pelvetiopsis
18
Rothamsted, England Broadbalk Wheat Experiment
19
Rothamsted, England Park Grass Experiment
20
Natural snapshot experiment
Succession following avalanches at different
times
21
Natural trajectory experiment
Eruption of Krakatau 1883
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