MKT 345 - Marketing Research Lecture Slides (Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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MKT 345 - Marketing Research Lecture Slides (Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin)


Explain the role of qualitative research in exploratory research designs ... Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)/Cartoon Tests. 1. Focus Group Interviews (Discussions) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MKT 345 - Marketing Research Lecture Slides (Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin)

MKT 345 - Marketing Research Lecture Slides
(Dr. Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin)
  • Qualitative Research Methods
  • (Reference Zikmund Babin Ch. 6)

Learning Objectives
  • At the end of this discussion you should be able
  • Explain the differences between qualitative and
    quantitative research methods
  • Explain the role of qualitative research in
    exploratory research designs
  • List and explain the main qualitative research
  • List and explain key characteristics of common
    techniques used in qualitative research
  • Identify and describe the advantages and
    disadvantages of these techniques

  • Research techniques that allow a researcher to
    obtain elaborate interpretations of market
    phenomena without depending on numerical
  • Characteristics
  • Uses small versus large samples
  • Emphasizes unstructured (broad range of) versus
    structured questioning methods
  • Involves subjective interpretation rather than
    objective statistical inference is
  • Has an exploratory purpose rather than
    descriptive and conclusive

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Purpose Discover ideas Test hypotheses or specific research questions
Approach Observe and interpret Measure and test
Data Collection Methods Unstructured free- forms Structured response categories provided
Researcher Independence Researcher is intimately involved results are subjective Researcher is uninvolved results are objective
Sample Small samples often natural setting Large samples to allow generalization
Most often used in Exploratory research designs Descriptive and causal research designs
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative
understanding of the underlying reasons and
motivations Small number of non-representative
cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an
initial understanding
Quantitative Research To quantify the data and
generalize the results from the sample to the
population of interest Large number of
representative cases Structured Statistical Rec
ommend a final course of action
Objective Sample Data Collection Data
Analysis Outcome
Qualitative Research Orientations
  • Four main qualitative research orientations
  • Phenomenology originating in philosophy and
  • Ethnography origins in anthropology
  • Grounded theory originates from sociology
  • Case studies roots in psychology and business

  • Based on the ideas that
  • human experience is inherently subjective and
    determined by the context in which a person lives
  • behavior is shaped by a persons relationship
    with the environment in which s/he lives
  • therefore the best way to understand this
    behavior is to understand the context in which
    the behavior occurs
  • this engaging in a conversational interview with
    the subject
  • Researcher may need to become part of the group
    to effectively study it
  • Special form is hermeneutics relying on
    analysis of texts in which a person tells a story
    about themselves

  • Methods of studying cultures through becoming
    highly active in the culture.
  • Typically uses observation as a data collection
    tool, hence the term participant-observation.
  • The observation can be human or mechanical but
    is often purposeful, i.e. focusing on specific
    features of behaviors that are of interest to the

Grounded Theory
  • Inductive investigation process in which the
    researcher uses empirical evidence to develop a
    theory for explaining a given phenomenon
  • Researcher repeatedly poses questions about the
    observed evidence and uses the responses to
    develop a deeper explanation (theory)
  • Particularly applicable in dynamic situations
    involving significant change where new insights
    are needed to explain phenomena that have not
    been previously encountered

Case Studies
  • Documented history of a particular person, group,
    organization, or event.
  • This intense examination of one or a few
    situations typically
  • Involves in-depth investigation and careful study
  • Requires cooperation from the investigated
    subjects (cases)
  • Case analyses are used to develop themes that can
    help explain a phenomenon
  • Used extensively in business research and teaching

  1. Focus group interviews (discussions)
  2. Depth interviews
  3. Conversations
  4. Semi-structured interviews
  5. Word Association/Sentence completion
  6. Observation
  7. Collages
  8. Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)/Cartoon Tests

1. Focus Group Interviews (Discussions)
  • Unstructured, free-flowing interview (discussion)
    with a small group of people about the subject
    area of the research
  • Unstructured
  • Free flowing
  • Group discussion
  • Group Composition
  • About 6-10 people
  • Relatively homogeneous
  • Similar lifestyles and experiences
  • Now sometimes conducted online Online Focus
  • Approach Ethnography,, Case studies

The Focus Group Moderator
  • The person in charge of moderating the group
  • Usually he
  • Develops rapport - helps people relax
  • Interacts
  • Listens to what people have to say
  • Everyone gets a chance to speak
  • Maintains loose control and focuses discussion
  • Stimulates spontaneous responses

2. Depth Interviews
  • Unstructured, extensive one-on-one interviews
    conducted with subjects of ultimate concern
    (typically consumers or customers).
  • Purpose is to gain valuable insights for the main
  • May sometimes involve testing aspects of the
    research design, such as questionnaire clarity,
    length, etc
  • Approach Ethnography, Grounded theory, Case

3. Conversations
  • Unstructured dialogue in which researcher engages
    the respondent in a discussion of the subject
    matter of interest
  • Combines features of focus group and depth
  • Similar to depth interview (in the sense of
    engaging one respondent at a time)
  • Similar to focus group discussion in the sense of
    allowing free discussion rather than asking
    specific questions
  • Approach Phenomenology grounded theory

4. Semi-Structured Interviews
  • Open-ended questions with answers solicited in
    writing typically in the form of short essays
  • Respondents are free to write as much as or as
    little as they choose
  • Requires the researcher to prepare the questions
    (opening and follow-up questions) in advance
  • Approach Grounded theory ethnography

5a. Word Association Tests
  • A projective technique in which subjects are
    presented with a word and asked to indicate what
    other words come to mind, e.g.
  • What comes to mind when you hear the following
  • Soft drinks
  • Mercedes
  • Technique may be used to develop an associative
    network of words related to a focal word
  • Useful in brand name testing and product concept

5b. Sentence Completion Tests
  • A projective technique in which subjects are
    given incomplete sentences and asked to complete
    them with the word or phrase that first comes to
    mind, e.g.
  • People who drive sports cars are __________
  • A man who drinks light beer is ____________
  • Sports cars are most liked by ______________
  • A sports car is ______________

6. Observation
  • Unobtrusive data collection method in which the
    researcher watches a phenomenon and records notes
    describing the phenomenon (e.g. a behavior)
  • Observation can be personal or mechanical
    disguised or undisguised structured or
    unstructured, etc
  • Approach Grounded theory ethnography case

7. Collages
  • Collage a pattern (larger picture, story, etc)
    made by sticking pictures or materials on a
  • In this research method, respondents are asked to
    assemble pictures to represent their
    thoughts/feelings about a phenomenon
  • Collages are then analyzed for meaning
  • Approach Phenomenology Grounded theory

8a. Thematic Apperception Tests (T.A.T.)
  • A projective technique in which subjects are
    presented with a series of pictures and are then
    asked to form a story about the pictures
  • TAT Illustration.ppt (Hamilton Power Tools

8b. Picture Frustration (Cartoon) Tests
  • Respondent is presented with a cartoon drawing
    representing an incomplete dialogue and asked to
    suggest a dialogue that the characters might
    engage in
  • See p. 153 of your text

  • A collection of exploratory research techniques
    based on indirect questioning in which
    respondents are asked to project themselves into
    a particular person, object, or situation
  • Often used where direct questioning is not likely
    to provide honest responses
  • Word association tests
  • Sentence completion method
  • Third-person technique
  • Role playing
  • T.A.T.
  • Picture frustration version of T.A.T.