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Understanding Crime

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Anomie: The absence or weakness of rules, norms, or guidelines as to what is ... Robert Agnew: Expanded Anomie Theory. Recognized sources of strain besides financial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Crime


1
Understanding Crime
2
Causes Of Crime
  • We left off discussing theories why crime occur.
  • There are differing opinions.
  • The opinion you hold affects crime fighting
    tactics
  • That impacts quality of life, schools, taxes...
  • Choice Theory
  • Biological Theories
  • Psychological Theories
  • Sociological Theories
  • Conflict Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Victimization Theories

3
Causes Of Crime
  • Sociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theory
  • Strain Theory
  • Social Process Theory
  • Differential Association Theory
  • Social Control Theory
  • Labeling Theory

4
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Sociological explanations of crime are most
    common

5
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Why are sociological theories of crime so
    important?

6
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theory
  • Obvious social class distinctions in America.
  • Upper, Middle and Lower Class

7
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Conflicts and problems of urban social life and
    communities control the crime rate.
  • Transitional Neighborhoods
  • Social Disorganization
  • Value Conflict

8
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Poverty 17,029 income for family of four (4)
  • Median US Household Income 40,800
  • Are there racial differences in the poverty rate?
  • If so, what is the effect on people and society?

9
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Life in deteriorated housing areas
  • These areas attract crime, drug
    dealing,prostitution
  • These problems, and the criminal environment that
    goes with them, are more acute for racial and
    ethnic minorities.
  • Negative racial and ethnic stereotyping can lead
    to lower employment opportunities and greater
    income inequality.

10
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Culture of Poverty

11
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Effects of being Truly Disadvantaged

12
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Realities of being Truly Disadvantaged
  • Inner city poverty is eternal and unchanging
  • Manufacturing jobs formerly available
    disappearing
  • Scarce work results in loss of discipline
    structure
  • Children are not socialized in mainstream society

13
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • Does racism really still exist in America?
  • If it does, is it becoming more subtle? How?
  • What exacerbates the problem?

14
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Structure Theorycontd
  • What would be the effect of constant assaults on
    your self image and sense of worth?

15
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Middle Class Values
  • Education
  • Hard Work
  • Sexual Abstinence
  • Honesty
  • Sobriety
  • Lower Class Values
  • Being Cool
  • Promiscuity
  • Intemperance
  • Fearlessness
  • Scorn Authority
  • Live for Today
  • Seek Excitement
  • Shun Formal Education

16
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Why do lower class youth often have such
    different values?

17
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Lower Class Focal Concerns
  • Trouble Status from fighting, drinking, sex
  • Toughness Reject sentiment, Accept fighting,
    athletic
  • Smartness Streetwise, Outsmart, Con, Gambling
  • Excitement Sex, fighting, gambling
  • Fate Believe in spiritual forces Hitting the
    jackpot
  • Autonomy Losing control is weak, Independence
    from parents, teacher, police is cool.

18
Social Structure TheoryPractical Implications
  • Social Structure Theory
  • Linked to the Rehabilitation Perspective
  • If poverty and strain cause crime, efforts to
    improve economic opportunity should be able to
    help reduce crime.

19
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • 2. Strain Theory
  • A subset of Social Structure Theory
  • Robert Merton Formulated Strain Theory

20
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Recall
  • Anomie The absence or weakness of rules, norms,
    or guidelines as to what is socially or socially
    acceptable.

21
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Strain TheoryContd
  • Inability of lower class to achieve culturally
    defined goals results in alternative solutions to
    meet their need for success.
  • Innovation Steal, Sell Drugs, Extort Money
  • Retreatism Drug Abusers, Alcoholics, Wanderers
  • Rebellion Revolutionaries

22
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Strain TheoryContd
  • Robert Agnew Expanded Anomie Theory
  • Recognized sources of strain besides financial
  • Negative Experiences
  • Child Abuse
  • Loss of Positive Supports
  • End of Romantic Relationships

23
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • 3. Social Process Theories
  • Learning Theories
  • Differential Association Theory
  • Control Theories
  • Social Control Theory
  • Labeling Theory

24
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories
  • Theories that people learn to commit crime by
    exposure to
  • Antisocial Behaviors
  • They believe criminal behavior depends on
    experience with rewards and punishments.
  • Rewards for deviance leads to crime.
  • NOTE Similarity to Behavioral Theory

25
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories
  • Fact People abuse drugs in all strata of society
  • Fact Most poor people have conventional values
  • Fact Most poor people are not criminals
  • Conclusion Something common to all social strata
    must be affecting crime.

26
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories
  • Crime and Delinquency Risk
  • Home

27
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories
  • Crime and Delinquency Risks
  • Educational

28
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories
  • Crime and Delinquency Risks
  • Peers

29
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories--Learning Theories
  • Differential Association Theory

30
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories--Learning Theories
  • Social Control Theory

31
Social Control TheoryPractical Implications
  • Social Process Theories--Learning Theories
  • Social Control Theory
  • Linked to the Rehabilitation Perspective
  • Advocates programs to strengthen
  • Societal Bonds
  • Family Involvement
  • Counseling Programs
  • School Prevention Programs
  • Inmate Treatment and Educational Programs

32
Causes Of CrimeSociological Theories
  • Social Process Theories--Learning Theories
  • Labeling Theory

33
Labeling TheoryPractical Implications
  • Social Process Theories--Learning Theories
  • Labeling Theory
  • Linked to the Noninterventionist Perspective
  • Advocates limited offender contact with CJ System
  • Prefers
  • Deinstitutionalization
  • Restitution Programs

34
Causes Of CrimePolitical Theories
  • Conflict Theory

35
Conflict TheoryPractical Implications
  • Conflict Theory
  • Linked to Restorative Justice Perspective
  • Advocates restoration of damages social relations
    by
  • Mediation
  • Arbitration
  • Restitution
  • Forgiveness

36
Causes Of CrimeIntegrated Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Latent Trait Theory
  • Developmental Theory

37
Causes Of CrimeIntegrated Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Latent Trait Theory
  • Belief that some people have a personal
    characteristic that controls their likelihood to
    commit crime.
  • Low Intelligence
  • Impulsive Personality
  • Genetic Defect

38
Causes Of CrimeIntegrated Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Best Known Latent Trait Theory
  • General Theory Of Crime
  • Criminals have a here and now orientation
  • Refusal to work for long term goals
  • Lack diligence, tenacity and persistence
  • Criminality Appeal Immediate Gratification
  • Money without work
  • Sex without courtship
  • Revenge without court delays

39
Causes Of CrimeIntegrated Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Developmental Theory

40
Causes Of CrimeIntegrated Theories
  • Integrated Theories
  • Developmental Theory
  • Key Turning Points in a Criminal Career
  • There is a positive combined effect

41
Developmental TheoryPractical Implications
  • Integrated Theories
  • Developmental Theory
  • Fact Building social capital (positive
    relationships that foster self worth and inhibit
    crime) and social bonds reduces long term
    criminality.
  • Fact Life events help terminate of sustain
    criminal careers.

42
Causes Of Crime Theories Of Victimization
  • Some theories of crime examine the role victims
    play in provoking or encouraging crime.
  • Lifestyle Theory
  • Routine Activities Theory

43
Causes Of Crime Theories Of Victimization
  • Lifestyle Theory
  • Partying and drug use increases likelihood of
    violent crime involvement

44
Causes Of Crime Theories Of Victimization
  • Routine Activities Theory

45
Break
  • Read assignments.
  • Participate in class discussions.
  • Review notes weekly.
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