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Classical Theories of Industrial Societies: Marx, Durkheim, Weber

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Growing complexity of industrial societies can create moral uncertainty or anomie ... solidarity (Forced d.o.l) (Anomie) Multi-dimensional (Disenchantment) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Theories of Industrial Societies: Marx, Durkheim, Weber


1

Sociology of Industrial Societies
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
2
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies
  • Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber
  • Analytical approach to the study of industrial
    societies
  • The social structure of industrial societies
  • Social relationships in industrial societies
  • Key similarities? Key differences?
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
3

d.1883
b.1818
1844 Econ. Philos. Manuscripts
1867 Capital Vol. 1.
Karl Marx
d.1917
b.1858
1893 The Division of Labour in Society
Emile Durkheim
d.1920
b.1864
1904 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism
Max Weber
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
4
  • Marx Analytical approach
  • Materialist conception of history
  • Humans defined by their material existence, esp.
    productive labour
  • Changes in the method and the organization of
    production as the drivers of societal development
  • Societies defined by their mode of production,
    comprising
  • Physical means of production
  • Social relations of production
  • Movement of societies through distinctive
    historical epochs
  • Asiatic ? Ancient ? Feudal ? Capitalist (?
    Socialist)
  • Industrial societies emerge out of
  • growing conflict between new means and old
    relations of production
  • leading to revolutionary overthrow of the old
    social order
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
5
  • Marx Social structure of industrial societies
  • Economic base, political and legal
    superstructures
  • Economic stratification according
  • to (non)ownership of the
  • means of production
  • Essentially two classes,
  • Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
  • Other classes...
  • remnants of classes from previous epoch
  • petit-bourgeoisie and other middle strata
  • lumpenproletariat or reserve army of labour
  • ...but...
  • expectation that two main classes will become
    increasingly crystallized and polarized over time
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
6
  • Marx Social relationships in industrial
    societies
  • Relationship between Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
    inherently exploitative
  • Private ownership of the means of production
    creates
  • dominant-subordinate relationship
  • Bourgeoisie expropriate as profit the surplus
    value of workers productive labour
  • Fundamentally opposed interests of the two
    classes creates intrinsic class conflict
  • Class domination in the ideological sphere ?
    false consciousness
  • Commodification of the products of labour creates
    alienation, i.e. the estrangement of human beings
    from the activity and result of productive labour
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
7
  • Durkheim Analytical approach
  • Focus on social aggregates as social facts
  • Society conceived of as analogous to an organism
    each part functions to maintain the whole
  • Social change thought of as a kind of
    evolutionary process
  • Societal development defined in terms of
  • The complexity of social organization
  • How social solidarity is maintained in the face
    of growing social complexity
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
8
  • Durkheim Social structure of industrial
    societies
  • Increasingly complex division of labour
  • Growing social differentiation and
    individualization
  • Institutional as well as individual
    specialization
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
9
  • Durkheim Social relationships in industrial
    societies
  • Shift away from mechanical solidarity (based on
    similarity) to organic solidarity (based on
    difference)
  • But potential social pathologies
  • Where the allocation of specialized roles is
    determined by interest groups rather than by the
    demands of society, a socially dysfunctional
    forced division of labour is made
  • Growing complexity of industrial societies can
    create moral uncertainty or anomie
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
10
  • Weber Analytical approach
  • Method of verstehen
  • Explaining historical developments requires
    empathic understanding
  • Ideas and beliefs as the drivers of gradual
    social change
  • Emergence of industrial societies linked to the
    impact of certain religious beliefs on the
    actions of individuals
  • Early industrializing countries all predominantly
    Protestant societies
  • Ascetic Protestantism
  • predestination and
  • work as a calling
  • Protestant work ethic hard
  • work, frugality, reinvestment of
  • profits ? genesis of
  • capitalist accumulation

Key Protestant Catholic Orthodox Source
Wikipedia Oct 2007
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
11
  • Weber Social Structure of Industrial Societies
  • Growing rationalization
  • Movement away from affective (emotion-led) and
    traditional (custom-led) forms of social action,
    towards more instrumentally rational
    (calculation-led) forms of social action
  • Movement away from charismatic (personality-led)
    and traditional (custom-led) forms of authority,
    towards more rational-legal (impersonal,
    bureaucratized) forms of authority
  • Not one but three stratification orders
  • Economic class
  • Social status
  • Political power
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
12
  • Weber Social relationships in industrial
    societies
  • Complex and multidimensional stratification
    relationships
  • Impersonal nature of rationalization/bureaucratiza
    tion means a social levelling
  • But
  • Increasing rationalization threatens growing
    disenchantment
  • Increasing bureaucratization threatens an iron
    cage
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
13
Key similarities? Key differences?
  • Classical Theories of Industrial Societies Marx,
    Durkheim, Weber

Week 2 MT07
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