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Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in Jordan

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Title: Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in Jordan


1
Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in
Jordan
  • Ali Badran
  • Faculty of Engineering and Technology
  • University of Jordan

2
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3
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4
Solar Energy Research Works (Since 1990)
5
Solar Energy Research Works (Since 1990)
6
Solar Collector works in Jordan
  • 1970 First collector designed and built in the
    country by the Royal Scientific Society.
  • 1973 Two local workshops produced 50 solar water
    heating systems per year.
  • 1986 12 of Jordanian homes used SWH.
  • 1992 20 of Jordanian homes (about 158,700) used
    SWH.
  • 2002 25 factories and workshops produced 40,000
    systems per year (17,000 m2)

7
Collector system distribution
8
Solar Collector Problems
  • Low efficiency, Large area, High Cost,
  • Intermittent water supply,
  • Collection of energy for a single use water
    heating.
  • Not integrated with the roof system
    Architectural adaptation problems.

9
Improving the Efficiency
  • Improving bond conductance
  • Thermal contact between tubes and absorber
    plate is of paramount importance for the
    conduction of heat from the plate to the working
    fluid inside the tubes.

10
Improper Fit Method
11
Improving the Efficiency, contd.
  • It was found that bond conductance for locally
    manufactured collectors is very low (2.3-6.3
    W/m.oC), compared with universal value (30 W/m.oC
    ).
  • Improvement in manufacturing techniques can be
    used to improve, but their effect is limited to
    6.3 W/m.oC.
  • Improvement in material is a must in order to
    improve bond conductance.

12
Integration with Building Roof Example
13
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14
The Inverted Trickle Concept
15
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16
Improvements on Inverted Trickle
17
Improvement of solar still Augmentation
with solar collector
18
Improvement with double glazing
19
Activities and Projects of the Royal Scientific
Society (RSS) and the National Energy Research
Center (NERC)
  • Basin-type solar stills
  • Parabolic trough concentrators
  • Brackish water desalination

20
Solar refrigeration for a vaccine cabinet
21
Evacuated Tube Collectors
22
Evacuated Tube vs. Flat Plate
23
Solar Ponds
24
Solar pond project objectives
  • Pond bottom lining system and the possibility of
    using local clays for lining
  • Thermal stability under local weather conditions,
    including wind and rain.
  • Convection cells and the effect of wall slope and
    surface roughness on stability.
  • Effect of using Carnalite salt( Some kind of Dead
    Sea salt) on stability.

25
Solar Pond Project Objectives, Contd.
  • Augmentation of pond with flat-plate collectors
    and the effect of that on stability.
  • Use of pond for greenhouse heating.
  • Feasibility of using the pond for the generation
    of electricity.
  • Comparison of using the pond vs. flat-plate
    collectors.

26
Industrial Applications
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29
RSS and NERC Industrial Projects
  • Solar system for water heating for Jordan Dairy
    Co.
  • Solar system for water heating for the Sweedish
    Co. for the Handicaped.
  • Solar system for water heating for the Ibn
    Al-Nafees Hospital in Irbid.
  • Solar space heating system for Princess Sumayya
    University (PSUT) building.
  • Solar swimming pool heating system for a
    Jordanian firm.

30
Solar Cookers, Box Type
31
Solar Cookers, Concentrator Type
32
Solar Cookers, Portable Type
33
Solar Cookers, with Heat Pipe
34
Solar PV Pumping
35
Activities of Renewable Energy Office (Now the
Energy Center) at the U. of Jordan in
Cooperation with KADDB
36
Environmental Guest House Project (Lets Try)
37
Institutional Arrangements
  • The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Law
  • (No 64) stipulates the encouragement of the
    utilization of energy alternatives, such as
    natural gas and renewable energies for
    electricity generation.
  • The National Agenda incorporates several
    benchmarks
  • to achieve this goal, some of which are
  • - 80 of residences should be using hot water
    solar collectors by 2015.
  • - The percentage of renewable energy share of
    the national consumption should be increased from
    the present 1 to 3 by 2015.

38
Institutional Red Tape
  • Energy saving devices and material were exempted
    from customs, but material of dual use, such as
    steel sheets, steel pipes and glazing were not.
  • This ended up by having some of the imported
    evacuated tube collectors in some cases cheaper
    than the locally-made flat-plate collectors.

39
Future Prospects
  • The stipulations of the National Agenda should
    be re-established based on the current prices of
    oil. It is expected that
  • All conventional, Diesel fuel-based central
    heating systems will be redundant. Solar
    energy-based central heating systems will be a
    serious competitor.
  • Domestic hot water solar heaters will prevail in
    almost 100 of residences.

40
Wish List
  • Flat-plate collectors
  • - Development of new material that is
    cheap, non-corrosive, durable and highly
    conductive to improve bond conductance.
  • - Application of press-fit techniques in the
    manufacturing of fin-tube absorber plate.
  • - Integration of solar collectors with
    building architecture

41
Wish List, contd.
  • Evacuated Tube collectors
  • -The use of evacuated tube collectors at the
    right temperature level, for example, in central
    heating, cooking, laundry, air conditioning…etc.

42
Wish List, contd.
  • Solar Desalination
  • -Integration of solar desalination with solar
    collectors to make use of the area of collectors
    for more than one purpose.
  • -Development of a pilot-plant installation
  • that uses multi-grade desalinated water for
    several purposes (drinking and agriculture)

43
Wish List, contd.
  • Solar Concentrators
  • - Making use of satellite dish technology to
  • obtain high optical concentrator efficiency.
  • - Improving concentrators will have a
    substantial effect on solar cooling and
    refrigeration, which will affect quality of food
    and vaccine storage in rural and remote areas.

44
Wish List, contd.
  • Solar Ponds
  • - Research should be made to cover missing
    topics in solar ponds, mainly desalination, power
    generation and district heating.
  • Solar Cooking
  • - Concentration should be made on solar cookers
    that use heat pipes. This would enable cooking
    while staying indoors.

45
Wish List, contd.
  • Photovoltaics
  • Integration of PV and thermal systems should be
    investigated to obtain better efficiency. PV
    cells of 20 efficiency, for example may be
    combined with a thermal solar collector whose
    efficiency is 60 to obtain 68 total efficiency
    for the system.

46
Wish List, contd.
  • Solar radiation prediction
  • Existing models do not take into account
    environmental factors such as land plantation
    cover and climate type. Finding those factors is
    crucial to enable the use of solar radiation
    prediction models such as the Angstrom-type
    regression method.

47
Wish List, contd.
  • Institutional Measures
  • - Granting tax incentives to solar system
    users.
  • - Finding financing tools for large solar
    systems.
  • - Enabling solar PV users to sell electricity to
    the grid.
  • - Training technicians.

48
Thank You
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