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Open entry

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Part I Students' difficulties and mismatches in dealing with their study in ... Pedagogy to andragogy. Dependent to independent learners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Open entry


1
  • Open entry Yes,
  • Distance education Why?
  • Adult learning Why not?
  • Natalia Li, David Kember
  • 11th May 2005, OUHK

2
contents
  • Part I Students difficulties and mismatches in
    dealing with their study in the first year of
    distance education (30 minutes)
  • Part II Interpretation and explanation of the
    mismatches (20 minutes)
  • Question and answer (10 minutes)

3
Part I
  • Students difficulties and mismatches in
    dealing with
  • their study in the first year of distance
    learning

4
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Introduction
  • Qualitative research on 10 new entrants to
    distance education
  • Had many hurdles
  • Their struggles interpreted as mismatches between
    degree of development of independent learning and
    method of study to be adopted
  • Findings are discussed adult learning of
    self-determination and open entry

5
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Methodology
  • 2 rounds of in-depth interviews (1 year apart)
  • Telephone discussions in between
  • Visits to tutorials
  • - sought research subjects (end of 1999)
  • - observed 6 research subjects (2000)

6
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Students background
  • all 10 students recruited from a foundation
    business course, BBA (but 1 studied language
    stream)
  • 9 F.5 or F.7 graduates, 1 Grade 12 overseas
  • 3 studied full-time diploma or certificate
    courses
  • 3 studied part-time diploma or certificate
    courses
  • all learned through face-to-face taught mode
    before studying at the University

7
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Learning independently assumed VS study methods
    adopted
  • 8 mismatches were identified

8
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 1 did not make good use of prospectus
and course supplementary
  • Not helping oneself to make decisions
  • Its very difficult to choose courses, by
    only relying on the prospectus. Oh, OU should
    tell/suggest what courses would be relevant to
    other courses. It affected my study. It is very
    difficult to tell OU that you should provide
    another course but not this one. It would be
    better if they can give advice on choosing
    courses.

9
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 2 could not manage new concepts of
all courses
  • Some were good at essay type courses, but weak in
    computing or mathematics types, or vise versa
  • Performed not so well as they wanted to
  • Needed extra time, effort and support to handle
    tasks, which they might not have prepared for

10
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 2 could not manage new concepts of
all courses
  • Not good at essay type courses
  • You dont know how the tutors or markers
    would mark your writing. There are no definite or
    standard answers. You never know exactly how you
    perform.
  •  
  • Yes, it is right to ask for more elaboration.
    However, it is very difficult for me. I was
    required to present the theory in detail. The
    tutors might comment that I do not write enough
    to illustrate my understanding. I am used to
    write one or two sentences to present my ideas. I
    supposed the tutors should understand what I
    mean.

11
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 2 could not manage new concepts of
all courses
  • Weak in other courses
  • I am very afraid of doing mathematics. Once I
    got the answer wrong, I would not have any marks.
    I do not have much confidence in mathematics
    since in primary school.
  • This student preferred to take essay type
    courses.

12
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 2 could not manage new concepts of
all courses
  • Spent extra time
  • I did not know how to do assignments. I
    wanted to have more time to finish the
    assignments by asking for extension.

13
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 3 did not have adequate English
ability
  • All said that they could understand the course
    materials, although not in the first attempt.
  • For difficult parts, they would read a few more
    times and look up the dictionary to get a better
    understanding.
  • However, some students had more problems than
    others.

14
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 3 did not have adequate English
ability
  • Not able to identify important parts
  • My English is quite weak I think I am not
    good at study skills. My ability is quite weak...
    I did not know how to select what should be
    covered or what should be left behind. I would
    say it is not a good or clever way of studying.

15
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 3 did not have adequate English
ability
  • Not able to comprehend the materials
  • The reason for spending longer time is that
    my English is too weak. In reading the textbook,
    I could not understand. I have to look up the
    dictionary very often. I could not comprehend the
    text quickly My time was wasted in this area...
    I spent much more time to finish reading but
    still might not be able to understand thoroughly.

16
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 3 did not have adequate English
ability
  • Not able to present ideas due to weak English
    writing
  • I paid a lot of effort in the first TMA. I
    started it very early. However, I faced the
    problem of English competence. I had the points
    in mind but could not present them properly in
    English. I was not able to express clearly with
    correct words and grammar.

17
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 3 did not have adequate English
ability
  • Weak examination performance
  • My performance in the examination was weak. I
    did not allocate my time properly. I did not read
    the passage for comprehension in good detail I
    did not think for the answers thoroughly.

18
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 4 not enough tutorials for
face-to-face learners
  • They enjoyed tutors support Helped
    understanding course materials and concepts
  • Maybe you do not understand if you study the
    book only. The tutorials would be very helpful.
    It also helped me to understand more and clearer
    by using lesser time. I thought of not attending
    tutorial before. However, I decided to attend
    eventually. If you missed a tutorial, you might
    miss some important points and have no chance to
    fill in the gap.
  •  
  • When the course first started, I was very
    hardworking that I read a lot before attending
    tutorials. I thought that I understood what was
    presented. However, after attending the
    tutorials, I realised that I made mistakes.
    Therefore I regard that attending tutorials is
    very important. Otherwise, I would not be able to
    make sure if I have understood correctly.

19
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 4 not enough tutorials for
face-to-face learners
  • They enjoyed tutors support Helped to handle
    assignments
  • Its very useful. First of all, the most
    important thing was that she reminded us of the
    due date of the handing in the assignment.
    Although the deadline has been stated in the
    assignments, I did not read that for TMAs as I
    focused on the contents without reading the
    assignment guides. Secondly, (the tutor) reminded
    us the important remarks of doing assignments,
    e.g. we cannot use point form to answer the
    questions. I think there would be a lot of
    students would make this kind of mistakes if they
    were not reminded. The points were very useful.

20
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 4 not enough tutorials for
face-to-face learners
  • In the first interview, the students were asked
    how would they handle the problems and their
    study. They said
  • -- they were the responsible ones
  • -- they would take control of their study
  • However found not able to handle their study
    independently
  • --they relied on their tutors presentation
  • or explanation

21
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 4 not enough tutorials for
face-to-face learners
  • Attended more than one round of tutorial sessions
    on the same courses
  • It would be no harm to attend two tutorial
    groups I attended two tutorial groups for a
    computing and I.T. course once It helped me to
    understand more. You know, each tutor presents
    what she/he sees as important. Not all topics
    will be covered. Somehow, you might not be able
    to listen to what you need. If you go to another
    tutorial group, you will have the chance to get
    what you want.
  • At least three students did so

22
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 4 not enough tutorials for
face-to-face learners
  • Preferred more tutorials
  •  
  • I think the tutorials sessions are not enough. If
    we could have tutorials each week, the assistance
    would be better. (5-credit course)
  • I think the time gap between two tutorials is too
    long. (Q You have 1 tutorial per month, and you
    have surgeries.) I prefer to have a tutorial for
    every two weeks. It can keep my study mood.
    (10-credit course)

23
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 5 varied degree of involvement in
tutorials
  • Students attended tutorials to help their
    learning
  • Involvement in tutorials varied because of
    different reasons

24
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 5 varied degree of involvement in
tutorials
  • Did not preview too busy at work
  • (could not contribute ideas)
  • Not ready to ask questions
  • (just focused on TMAs)
  • Weak English
  • Shy to present in front of others

25
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 6 not using telephone tutoring
  • Because of a time gap between the needs and
    availability
  • -- only four hours per week was not enough
  • -- over-time work did not allow to make calls
    within the scheduled hours
  • -- scheduled hours did not fit into late night
    study habits
  • -- not easy to understand through telephone
    discussion
  • -- felt uneasy to call all the time, meaningless

26
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 6 not using telephone tutoring
  • Expected more hours
  • I would like the tutors to provide more
    consultation hours, not only limited to the
    evenings of Saturdays and Sundays. Usually, I was
    not at home... There are very limited hours for
    consultation. There are so many of us who need
    advice. I feel uneasy to disturb them
  • Three students always called only to extend the
    assignment deadlines.

27
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 7 not using online support,
surgeries, libraries
  • Read notes from tutors or other students
    messages mainly, without participating in
    discussion or sharing views
  • It (Attending surgeries) is very practical.
    However, I cannot arrange my time to attend those
    surgeries. You can ask a lot of things if you
    have interest.
  •  
  • (Q Have you attended any sessions of
    surgery?) I have not attended any. I am lazy in
    this case.
  • I only used the e-mail system. My tutors
    encouraged us to use the e-mails, discussion
    board I only read the messages. I was lazy. I
    did not join the chat room discussion.

28
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 7 not using online support,
surgeries, libraries
  • Not using the University library, e-library,
    public libraries
  • Because of
  • -- not needed
  • -- no time
  • -- too far away from work place/ home

29
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 8 study groups not functioning well
  • Suggested by the University and the tutors to
    form study groups to support one another.
  • These ten students formed study groups in the
    first tutorial in the foundation business course.
  • They had exchanged contact information.

30
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 8 study groups not functioning well
  • Peer support enjoyed
  • When I shared with my peers to finish
    different parts of the assignment, that is, we
    reminded and showed each other what we knew, I
    got a high sense of satisfaction. It was very
    nice that I got someone to ask. If I only studied
    on my own, it would be too difficult. I think it
    would be much easier to solve the problems
    together. It makes a very big different to have
    peers to work together.

31
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 8 study groups not functioning well
  • Peers not available
  • I discovered a course mate took the exactly
    same subjects with me. I planned to ask for his
    telephone number in the next tutorial session.
    But he did not attend the tutorials again. I have
    no where to contact him again The second
    tutorial was a month afterwards. We had to hand
    in the first assignment. It was too late to get
    another course mate to ask I really hoped to
    learn with course mates of the course. If I could
    have someone to discuss with, I would not have
    dropped the XXX course

32
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
Mismatch 8 study groups not functioning well
  • No initiative to make the first call
  • Not easy to get group members
  • (new to one another in new courses)
  • No time to meet up
  • Living far apart

33
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Summary
  • students did not make good use of information
    provided in the prospectus and human resources
    indicated in course supplement to help themselves
    making decisions  
  • students could not manage new concepts of all
    courses. Some were good at essay type courses,
    but weak in computing or mathematics types, or
    vise versa. They performed not so well as they
    wanted to. They needed extra time, effort and
    support to handle tasks, which they might not
    have prepared for       

34
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Summary 
  • students did not have adequate language abilities
    to handle their study in English. It caused
    problems in comprehending course content and
    writing up the assignments and answering
    questions in essay form   

35
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Summary
  • numbers of tutorial sessions were not enough for
    students who needed more face-to-face support
  • involvement in tutorials varied because of
    different reasons not previewed, had not
    understood concepts even with tutors support,
    not enough confidence to share views or asking
    questions, not enough language ability, and
    personal preferences in learning
  •      

36
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Summary
  • the telephone tutoring support was not well used
    as there was a gap between the time of need and
    availability
  • students did not use online and surgery support
    although available
  • peer learning outside classrooms was not
    functioning well because of limited time, lack of
    initiative and distant residence location
  •  

37
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Why were there so many mismatches?
  • The key reason -- students were not equipped with
    sufficient study skills in distance learning mode
    that they needed to have for independent
    learning.
  • -- The gap between what they had (to be fed) and
    what they had to display (self-determined) was
    too big.

38
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • Why were there so many mismatches?
  • -- as mainly traditional study skills acquired
    from their face-to-face learning experiences
    since young
  • -- so not able to practice what they preached
    to take up own responsibility, but relied a lot
    on others instead

39
Part I Students difficulties and mismatches
  • If the students were to survive and the
    University was to help, students had to be
    provided with chances to learn how to study in
    the alternative way.

40
Part II
  • Interpretation and explanation for the
    mismatches

41
Open entry
  • 33 of age group admitted to F6
  • 17 obtain place in UGC-funded universities
  • Large number of youths miss out

42
Distance Education
  • Education Commission accepted need for distance
    learning but did not recommend UKOU model
  • Potential open entry students different to UK
  • OUHK follows UKOU model

43
Mis-matches
  • Entrants to undergraduate courses have been
    conditioned by HK schools to be heavily dependent
    learners
  • Distance education needs independent learning

44
Outcome of mis-matches
  • In both kinds of institutions it seems that many
    are called to enrol but few are chosen to
    graduate. Such evidence as we have and there is
    not enough of it is consistent across open and
    dual-mode universities that successful
    completion rates on many courses are disturbingly
    low. But the general conclusion has to be that
    the methods of open and distance learning, held
    out as a promise of grand educational expansion,
    have failed to meet the hopes of the majority of
    higher education students. (Perraton, 2000)

45
Adult education theory
  • Pedagogy to andragogy
  • Dependent to independent learners
  • Teach how to swim down the shallow end rather
    than throw in deep end
  • Distance learning materials with enhanced
    face-to-face tuition aiming to cultivate ability
    to learn independently

46
Open course choice
  • UKOU has freedom in choice of courses to promote
    openness
  • Curtails guidance
  • Curtails class cohesion

47
Part III
  • Question and answer
  • (10 minutes)

48
  • Open entry Yes,
  • Distance education Why?
  • Adult learning Why not?
  • Natalia Li, David Kember
  • 11th May 2005, OUHK
  • Thank you.
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