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The teaching of early reading in English primary schools:

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Adoption of the Simple View of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990) ... into cohesive (pronoun resolution; anaphora) and knowledge-based (bridging) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The teaching of early reading in English primary schools:


1
  • The teaching of early reading in English primary
    schools
  • The impact of the Rose Review

2
Outline of talk
  • Selected recommendations of the Rose Review.
  • Response to those recommendations
  • The CLLD team
  • Essential Knowledge
  • Letters and Sounds
  • Continuing Professional Development
  • Primary Strategy Regional Advisers, CLLD and EYFS
  • Teachers and Practitioners
  • Initial Teacher Education

3
Recommendations
  • Adoption of the Simple View of reading (Gough
    Tunmer, 1986 Hoover Gough, 1990).
  • Discrete, systematic teaching of phonics (GPCs,
    blending, segmenting) as the prime approach to
    beginning to learn to read and spell words.
  • Phonics teaching to be set within a broad and
    rich language curriculum.
  • The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and the
    renewed Framework for Teaching should provide
    clear guidance on developing childrens receptive
    and expressive language.
  • The Training and Development Agency (TDA) for
    schools should take account of all aspects of the
    Review, to ensure that initial training and
    continuing professional development provide good
    value for money in the teaching of reading.

4
The Communication, Language and Literacy
Development team (CLLD)
  • A new team within the National Strategies, which
    works collaboratively with the Literacy and the
    EYFS teams and is responsible for implementing
    Rose recommendations
  • http//www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/local/clld/

5
The Communication, Language and Literacy
Development team (CLLD)
  • Information and guidance documents for primary
    school heads and teachers, and managers and
    practitioners in Early Years settings
  • the Simple View of reading
  • ensuring beginners progress in each of the two
    dimensions of word recognition and language
    comprehension
  • overview of phonics and early reading how to
    implement phonics teaching
  • progression and pace in hearing, retelling,
    reading and writing different kinds of texts from
    poetry and narrative to information and
    instructional texts
  • planning for and improving writing.

6
Other sources of information and guidance
documents
  • http//www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/primaryframeworks
    /downloads/PDF/reading_comprehension.pdf
  • http//www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publicati
    ons
  • Primary Framework Core position papers
  • Understanding reading comprehension what it is,
    and strategies to develop it.
  • http//publications.teachernet.gov.uk

7
CLLD team Essential Knowledge
  • New interactive training program, Essential
    Knowledge, to improve the subject knowledge of
    teachers and practitioners in EYFS and KS1 is
    about to go live.
  • Modules providing information and insight into
  • the development of early communication and
    language
  • what is involved in providing a broad and rich
    language curriculum, including ways of reading to
    children to develop their language
  • teaching phonological awareness and phonics
    tricky words
  • the simple view of reading
  • selecting appropriate texts for children to read
  • developing reading comprehension
  • motivating children to read and enjoy reading for
    pleasure and information

8
Letters and Sounds
  • Phonics teaching is organised into six phases.

9
Letters and Sounds
  • Phase 1
  • Emphasises oral language development provides
    guidance and video examples of best practice in
    provision of a broad and rich language experience
    for children in EYFS (to age 5) includes
    activities to develop phonological awareness.
  • Phase 2
  • Starts systematic phonics teaching, with s a t p
    i n and practice in reading and writing words
    using these letter sounds. 19 letter sounds and
    phoneme blending and segmentation taught, used
    and practised in a 6 week period. A set of HF
    tricky words also taught and practised.

10
Letters and Sounds
  • Phase 3
  • Remaining single letter sounds and one grapheme
    for each of the remaining phonemes taught, used
    and practised in reading and writing phrases and
    sentences in a 12 week period. More HF tricky
    words taught and practised.
  • Phase 4
  • No new GPCs taught. Consolidation of previous
    learning and practice blending and segmenting
    words with initial and final consonant clusters.
    More HF tricky words taught, making a total of
    31. This phase completed in 4-6 weeks. Most
    children should complete Phase 4 by end of
    Reception year.

11
Letters and Sounds
  • Phase 5
  • Extends throughout Year 1 (age 5-6years). Taught
    and practise using alternative spellings for
    phonemes, and a further 25 tricky words.
  • Phase 6
  • Extends throughout Year 2 (age 6-7 years) with
    emphasis mainly on spelling, learning which GPCs
    are used in specific words.

12
Letters and Sounds
  • By the end of KS1, most children will have
    mastered the English alphabetic system.
  • Download the program from http//www.standards.dfe
    s.gov.uk/local/clld/las.html

13
Letters and Sounds funded support programme
  • Early Reading Development pilot in 18 LAs
  • Used precursor to Letters and Sounds (Playing
    with Sounds).
  • Year R, taught one grapheme for each of 44
    phonemes, and practise reading and writing using
    phoneme blending and segmenting skills.
  • Consultants 3 days training
  • Teachers/practitioners 2 days training
  • Schools/settings 4-6 days structured consultant
    support.
  • Promising results ? 2-year programme in 50 LAs
    (32 new, 18 ERD).
  • Each LA appointed a consultant
  • Nominated 10 schools in need of significant
    improvement to take part in Year 1 five more
    added in Year 2.

14
Letters and Sounds funded support evaluation
  • Evaluated by observation, interview and progress
    on the 9 scale points on the Linking letters and
    sounds scale of the EYFS profile.
  • Teachers reported
  • Increase in childrens vocabulary and improvement
    in listening skills
  • Children more confident and keen to have a go
    in applying phonics in reading and writing
  • No perceived detriment to personal social and
    emotional development
  • Improvement in teacher confidence and knowledge,
    and raised expectations
  • Improved ability to assess and plan
  • Value of daily routine of the teaching sequence
    revise, introduce new sound, practise with new
    sound, apply in reading and writing words and
    sentences

15
Letters and Sounds funded support evaluation
  • 9 scale points on the Linking letters /sounds
    scale of the EYFS profile
  • Joins in with rhyming and rhythmic activities
  • Shows an awareness of rhyme and alliteration
  • Links some sounds to letters
  • Links sounds to letters, naming and sounding
    letters of the alphabet
  • Hears and says sounds in words
  • Blends sounds in words
  • Uses phonic knowledge to read simple regular
    words
  • Attempts to read more complex words, using phonic
    knowledge
  • Uses letters, sounds and words when reading and
    writing independently

16
Letters and Sounds funded support evaluation
  • Percentage of children getting 6/9 ticks
    increased by 5.35 in targeted schools and
    settings, compared with overall national increase
    of 3.7.
  • Support is now being extended to a further 50 LAs.

17
Continuing Professional Development
  • Primary Strategy Regional Advisers, and EYFS and
    CLLD teams given 5 days training on
  • Language development through to adolescence and
    evidence based ways to foster language
    development in EYFS /KS1
  • The Simple View of reading processes in skilled
    word reading and how these develop in children
  • Reading comprehension what it involves and ways
    to develop it
  • Two days on systematic structured phonics and how
    to teach it.

18
Continuing Professional Development
  • Training days were filmed and edited down into a
    training DVD Communication, Language and
    Literacy Professional development resource
    which has been distributed to all LAs and ITE
    institutions.
  • We have met Literacy Consultants who have watched
    the DVDs and found the material really
    fascinating and useful.

19
Continuing Professional Development
  • Literacy Consultants in each Local Authority
    deliver CPD for teachers and practitioners.
  • Staff in schools and settings in Local
    Authorities where the funded Early Reading
    Development programme was being implemented
    received more dedicated consultant support than
    those not in such schools and settings, but all
    receive some consultant support, and all
    consultants attend regional training conferences.

20
Continuing Professional Development
  • Some of the training materials used by Literacy
    Consultants are available on the CLLD website
  • Weve already referred in passing to the
    Essential Knowledge interactive training
    materials which are about to be launched by the
    CLLD team.
  • These materials include a module on reading
    comprehension.

21
Reading comprehension
  • As this series of seminars is all about reading
    comprehension, youre probably most interested in
    what is happening nationally on that front.
  • The Primary National Strategy team have produced
    a number of publications which are downloadable
    from their various websites
  • 2005 Understanding Reading Comprehension
  • What is reading comprehension?
  • Strategies to develop reading comprehension
  • Further strategies to develop reading
    comprehension
  • 2006 Developing Reading comprehension

22
Inference
  • 2005 Pre-Rose
  • What is reading comprehension? 2 mentions of
    inference
  • help childrengo beyond literal interpretation
    and recall to explore the complex meanings of a
    text using inference and deduction
  • plan opportunities for children to interpret
    and respond to the text, for example teach
    strategies for using inference and deduction
  • Strategies to develop reading comprehension 2
    mentions of inference
  • Closed factual questions do not encourage
    (children) to use inference and deduction.
  • ask questions that make increasing
    demandsmoving from simple recall, through
    inference to questions that ask for evaluation
    and response.
  • Further strategies to develop reading
    comprehension 0 mentions of inference

23
Inference
  • 2006 Post-Rose
  • Developing reading comprehension 49 mentions of
    inference
  • Section on The important role of inferences
    which
  • Differentiates between inference and reasoning
  • Defines and describes two broad categories of
    inference coherence inferences and elaborative
    (extending) inferences
  • Subdivides coherence category into cohesive
    (pronoun resolution anaphora) and
    knowledge-based (bridging) inferences and gives
    examples of each type.
  • Makes clear that elaborative inferences are not
    necessary to literal understanding, but enrich
    the mental representation formed of the text.

24
Working memory, vocabulary, situation models and
mental models
  • 2005 Pre-Rose
  • Working memory did not exist
  • Vocabulary mentioned 8 times in What is reading
    comprehension and twice in Further strategies
    for developing reading comprehension
  • Situation models and mental models did not exist
  • 2006 Post-Rose
  • Working memory mentioned 4 times limited
    capacity individual differences, role in
    comprehension.
  • Vocabulary mentioned 32 times discrete section
    devoted to vocabulary knowledge and its role in
    reading comprehension.
  • Situation model mentioned 5 times
  • Mental model mentioned 5 times

25
Initial Teacher Education
  • Arizpe, E. Styles, M. (2002) Children reading
    pictures interpreting visual texts.
  • Feitelson, D., Kita, B., Goldstein, Z. (1986)
    Effects of listening to series stories on first
    graders comprehension and use of language.
  • Geekie, P., Cambourne, B. Fitzsimmons, P.
    (1999) Understanding Lit. Dev.
  • Goswami, U. (2001) Early phonological development
    and the acquisition of literacy.
  • Hall, N. Robinson, A. (2003) Exploring Writing
    and Play in the Early Years.
  • Kress, G. (2000) Before writing rethinking the
    paths to literacy.
  • Pressley, M. (2001) Effective Beginning Reading
    Instruction.
  • Seidenberg, M.S. McClelland, J.L. (1989) A
    Distributed, Developmental Model of Word
    Recognition and Naming.
  • Sulzby, E. (1985) Children's emergent reading of
    favorite storybooks A developmental study.

26
Initial Teacher Education
  • Block, C. C. Mangieri, J. N. (2005) Powerful
    vocabulary for reading success.
  • Booth, A., Dunn, J. R. (1996) Familyschool
    links .. educational outcomes?
  • Davidson, Snow, C.E. (1995) The linguistic
    environment of early readers.
  • Elley, W. B. (1989) Vocabulary acquisition from
    listening to stories.
  • Rupley, Logan, Nichols (1989) Vocab.
    instruction in a balanced reading program.
  • Snow, C.E., Tabors, P.O., Nicholson, P.
    Kurland, B. (1995) SHELL Oral language and early
    literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade
    children.
  • Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., et al. (2004) The
    Effective Provision of Pre-School Education
    (EPPE) Project Final Report.

27
Initial Teacher Education
  • Adams, M. J. (1990) Beginning to Read Thinking
    and Learning about Print.
  • Bryant, Bradley, MacLean, Crossland (1989)
    Nursery rhymes, phonological skills and reading.
  • Chall, J. S. (1983) Learning to read The great
    debate (updated edition).
  • Ehri, L.C. (1987) Learning to read and spell
    words.
  • Ehri, L. C. Systematic Phonics Instruction
    findings of the National Reading Panel.
  • Johnston, F. R. (2000) Word learning in
    predictable texts.
  • Johnston, R.S., Watson, J.E. (2005) A
    seven-year study of the effects of synthetic
    phonics teaching on reading and spelling
    attainment.

28
Initial Teacher Education
  • Johnston, R., Anderson, M. Holligan, C. (1993)
    Knowledge of the alphabet and explicit awareness
    of phonemes in pre-readers The nature of the
    relationship.
  • National Inst. of Child Health / Human Devel.
    (2000) Report of the NRP.
  • Rumelhart, D.E. Mcclelland, J.L. (Eds) (1986)
    Parallel Distributed Processing. Vol. 1
    Foundations.
  • Snow, C. E. Juel, C. (2005) Teaching children
    to read What do we know about how to do it?

29
Initial Teacher Education
  • Baker, L., Brown, A. L. (2001) Metacognitive
    skills and reading.
  • Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., et al. (2001) Systematic
    phonics instruction helps learn to read.
  • Gamble, N. Yates, S. (2002) Exploring
    childrens literature teaching lang reading
    of fiction.
  • Heath, S. B. (1983) Ways with Words.
  • Holdaway, D. (1979) The Foundations of Literacy,
  • Levy, B.A. Gong, Z. et al. (2006) Understanding
    Print Early Reading/Home Literacy Experiences.
  • Lankshear, C. Knobel, M. (2003) New Literacies
    Changing Knowledge, Classroom Learning.
  • Marsh, J. Millard, E. (2000) Literacy and
    Popular Culture using chns culture in the
    classroom.

30
Initial Teacher Education
  • Marsh, J. (Ed) (2005) Popular Culture, new media
    and digital literacy in Early Childhood.
  • Morrow, L. M. (1990) Preparing the classroom
    environment to promote literacy during play.
  • Neuman, S. (1996) Children Engaging in Storybook
    Reading .. Parental Interaction.
  • Stamboltzis, A. Pumfrey, P. (2000) Reading
    across the genres a review of literature.
  • Street, B. V. (1995) Social literacies critical
    approaches to literacy .. ethnography, and
    education.
  • Teale, W. H. Sulzby, E. (1986) Emergent
    literacy Writing and reading.
  • Weinberger, J. (1996) Literacy goes to school
    The parents role in literacy learning.
  • Wells, G. (1986) The Meaning Makers.
  • .

31
Initial Teacher Education
  • Brown, A. Palinscar, A. (1985) Reciprocal
    teaching of comprehension strategies A natural
    program for enhancing learning.
  • Clay, M.M. (2000) Running records for classroom
    teachers.
  • Fountas, I.C. (1999) Matching books to readers
    Using leveled books in guided reading, K3.
  • Fountas, I.C. Pinnell, G.S. (1996) Guided
    reading Good first teaching for all children.
  • Seymour, P.H.K. Duncan, L.G. (2001) Learning to
    read in English.
  • Snow C.E. Juel, C. (2005) Teaching Children to
    Read What do we know about how to do it?

32
Initial Teacher Education
  • Brooks, G., Flanagan, N., Henkhuzens, Z.
    Hutchinson, D. (1998) What Works for Slow
    Readers? The Effectiveness Of Early Intervention
    Schemes.
  • Cain, K. Oakhill, J.V. (1999) Inference ability
    and its relation to comprehension failure in
    young children.
  • Clay, M. (2005) Literacy lessons designed for
    individuals.
  • Clay, M. (2005) Literacy Lessons Part Two.
  • Frith, U. (1985) Beneath the surface of
    developmental dyslexia.
  • Gough, P.B. Tunmer, W.E. (1986) Decoding,
    reading and reading disability.
  • Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C. Snowling, M.J. (2004)
    Explicit phoneme training combined with phonic
    reading instruction helps young children at risk
    of reading failure.
  • Hiebert, E.H. Taylor, B.M. (2000) Beginning
    reading instruction Research on early
    interventions.
  • Nation, K. (2005) Childrens reading
    comprehension difficulties.
  • Snow, C.E., Burns, S. Griffin, P. (1998)
    Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young
    Children.

33
Initial Teacher Education
  • TDA are concerned about failure to win hearts and
    minds in some quarters of ITE establishment
  • May put on a two-day conference in the Autumn
  • Designed to bring teacher educators up to date
    with cutting edge psychological research into
    reading and writing
  • And to show implications of this research for
    classroom practice
  • And therefore why it is important to include it
    in initial teacher education
  • If this goes ahead, expect to be asked to
    participate..
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