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CLEAN

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9/24/09. CLEAN & ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES: Political Will, Capacity Building and ... old fluorescent lighting systems in a main City Hall building -8 flats- (April ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLEAN


1
CLEAN ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES Political Will,
Capacity Building and Peoples' Participation
  • Global Peoples Forum
  • Josep Puig i Boix
  • Alternativa Verda
  • Green Map
  • Johannesburg
  • August - September, 2002

2
Humans and Cities
  • World Population
  • 1975 4 billion, 38 living in cities (1.52
    billion)
  • 1999 6 billion, 47 living in cities (2.82
    billion)
  • 2006 6.5 billion, 50 living in cities (3.27
    billion)
  • half of human population will live in
    cities
  • (according to UN)

2
3
Unsustainable Path
  • Global Carbon Emissions since 1991 gt 6109 tons
  • Global Gross Product 20.51012 (18.5x1012
    fossil fuels)
  • Global Carbon Efficiency 3,083 /tnC
  • Japan 10,839 /tnC (the highest in the world)
  • Japan 2.35 tnC/capita
  • World 6 billion inhabitants (2.35 tnC/capita)
  • Global Carbon Emissions gt 14109 tons
  • IPCC recommends 60 reduction 2.54109 tons

3
4
Energy System chain of technology
  • Primary Secondary Energy
  • Energy Energy Services
  • coal power plants electricity
    houses warm meals
  • oil refineries petrol
    buses clean clothes
  • solar mines stoves
  • hydro lamps
  • wind

Supply Technologies
End-Use Technologies
4
5
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesMDES
  • Energy Services (electricity) End-Use
    Technologies
  • Lighting 1000 lumen average (6 inc.lamps, each
    60 W, 6 hours/day)
  • Refrigeration 200 liter refrigerator(5oC) 100
    liter freezer (-18oC)
  • Washing automatic electric washing machine (non
    electric heating)
  • 200 laundry washings per year, each 4
    kg
  • Electronics TV-watching, radio listening,
    computer use, other
  • Ventilation supply of fresh air in high rise
    buildings
  • Energy Services (non electric) End-Use
    Technologies
  • cooking 3 meals per day
  • hot water clothes washing personal cleaning

5
6
Minimum Domestic Energy Services MDES -
Electricicity (1)
  • Energy Services (electricity) End-Use
    Technologies
  • conventional efficient
  • kWh/y W W/cap
    kWh/y Watt W/cap
  • Lighting 788 90.00 22.50 280
    32 8
  • Refrigeration 850 97.03 24.26
    140 16 4
  • Washing 400 45.66 11.42 70
    8 2
  • Electronics 2483 283.46 70.87
    350 40 10
  • Ventilation 500 57.08 14.27
    105 12 3
  • Other uses 1987 226.77 56.69
    280 32 8
  • total 7008 800.00 200.00
    1226 140 35
  • Source Norgard, J.S. (1992), Low Electricity
    Europe Sustainable Options, Technical
    University of Denmark, Lyngby

6
7
Minimum Domestic Energy (electricity)
ServicesWorlds Urban Population (1)
  • World cities population (2006) 3.27 billion
  • W/cap TWh/year
  • End-Use conventional 200 5,729
  • Technologies efficient 35
    1,003
  • (only domestic sector, not including service
    sector nor industry)

7
8
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (2)
  • Supply Technology - conventional
  • Coal TPP (Steam T 36)
  • SO2 NOx CO2
  • Mtn Mtn Mtn
  • End-Use conventional 98.54 7.39 5,064
  • Technology efficient 17.24 1.29 886
  • (1022 or 179 Coal TPP units, each 800 MW with a
    CF0.8)

8
9
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (3)
  • Supply Technology - conventional
  • CCGT (gassteam, 53)
  • SO2 NOx CO2
  • Mtn Mtn Mtn
  • End-Use conventional 0 0.57 1,977
  • Technology efficient 0 0.10 346
  • (4088 or 715 CCGT, each 200 MW with a CF0.8)

9
10
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (4)
  • Supply Technology - conventional
  • Nuclear Power Plant (PWR, 36)
  • Spent Plutonium emissions
    Fuel airwater
    tn. tn. Bq1012
  • E-U conv. 20,438 163.5 54,426
  • Tech. effic. 3,577 28.6
    9,525
  • (818 or 143 Nuclear Plants, 1000 MW each, with a
    CF0.8)

10
11
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (5)
  • Supply Technology - conventional
  • Nuclear Power Plant (PWR, 36)
  • yelow cake Uranium wastes
    U3O8 Ore liquids solids
  • tn. tn106 tn106 tn106
  • E-U conv. 155,325 213 368 245
  • Tech. effic. 27,182 37 64
    43
  • (85 radioactivity)
  • (818 or 143 Nuclear Plants, 1000 MW each, with a
    CF0.8)

11
12
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (6)
  • Supply Technology - RES
  • clean renewable energies
  • SO2 NOx CO2
  • Mtn Mtn Mtn
  • End-Use conventional 0 0 0
  • Technology efficient 0 0 0

12
13
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorlds Urban
Population (7)
  • Supply Technology - RES
  • clean renewable energies
  • energy capacity surface capacity
    surface
  • TWh GWSEGS km2 GWWECS km2
  • E-U conv. 5,729 1,869 36,063 2,180
    87,200
  • Tech. effic. 1,003 327 6,311
    382 15,260
  • SEGS (CF 0.35 LU 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF 0.3
    LU 4 Ha/MW)

13
14
Barcelona energy flow
14
15
Barcelona renewable energy flow
15
16
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (1)
  • Barcelona population (1997) 1,505,581
  • W/cap GWh/year
  • End-Use conventional 200 2,638
  • Technologies efficient 35
    462
  • real (1998) 102 1,348
  • (only domestic sector, not including service
    sector nor industry)

16
17
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (2)
  • Supply Technology - conventional
  • TPP/CCGT - NukPP
  • End-Use conventional 377 MW
  • Technology efficient 66 MW
    real (1998) 192 MW
  • (CF 0.8)

17
18
Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (3)
  • Supply Technology - RES
  • clean renewable energies
  • energy capacity surface capacity
    surface
  • GWh MWSEGS km2 MWWECS km2
  • E-U conv. 2,638 860 16.61
    1,004 10.04
  • Tech. effic. 462 151 2.91
    176 1.75
  • real(1998) 1,348 440 8.49
    513 5.13
  • SEGS (CF 0.35 LU 1.93 Ha/MW) -
    WECS (CF 0.25 LU 1 Ha/MW

18
19
Barcelona producing all the electricity consumed
with Sun and Wind (1)
  • Electricity SEGS(th) WECS
  • consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.
  • GWh MW km2 MW km2
  • Total 5,385 1,756 33.9 2,459 24.6
  • Domestic 1,348 440 8.5 616
    6.2
  • Com/ind. 3,917 1,278 24.6 1,789
    17.9
  • Transport 120 39 0.8
    55 0.6
  • SEGS (CF 0.35 LU 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS
    (CF 0.25 LU 1 Ha/MW)

19
20
Barcelona producing all the electricity consumed
with Sun (1)
  • Electricity SEGS(th)
    SEGS(PV)
  • consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.
  • GWh MW km2 MW km2
  • Total 5,385 1,756 33.9 2,442 24.4
  • Domèstic 1,348 440 8.5 611
    6.1
  • Com/ind 3,917 1,278 24.6 1,777 17.7
  • Transport 120 39 0.8
    54 0.5
  • SEGSth (CF 0.35 LU 1.93 Ha/MW) - SEGSPV
    (EF 0.15 LU 1 Ha/MW)

20
21
Barcelona producing all the electricity consumed
with Sun (2)
  • Electricity SEGSPV
  • consumed Capac. Surf.
  • GWh MW km2 m2/inh m2/aprt.
  • Total 5,384.7 2,442 24.4 16.2
    36.5
  • Domèstic 1,348.1 611 6.1 4.1
    9.1
  • Com/ind. 3,917.1 1,777 17.7 11.7
    26.5
  • Transport 119.6 54 0.5 0.4
    0.8
  • SEGSPV (EF 0.15 LU 1 Ha/MW)

21
22
Barcelona Heating Water with the Sun
  • Energy Consumption for Domestic Hot Water
  • Natural Gas 558 GWh/year
  • Electricity 337 GWh/year
  • Total 895 GWh/year
  • Total area needed 1.5 km2 (city 100 km2)
  • Total area per person 1.0 m2
  • Total area per apartment 2.3 m2
  • Total area per building 19.0 m2

22
23
Realising the Energy Efficiency and the Renewable
Energy Potential
  • Three conditions
  • political will political commitment
  • technical ability committed skilled
    technicians
  • peoples involvement public participation
  • PARTNERSHIP

23
24
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (1)
  • Barcelona, June 1995 - May 1999
  • A committed group of people worked hard to open
    the door to the Energy Sustainability into the
    city
  • An interesting set of circunstances came together
    to make it happen
  • municipality
  • RE Companies
  • RE NGOs

24
25
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (2)
  • Municipality
  • As a result of the 1995 municipal elections the
    city government adopted sustainability as a
    issue.
  • April 22nd., 1998 the Plenary Session of the
    City Council adopted a political decision on
    Energy Sustainability, including
  • promotion of energy efficiency,
  • use of renewable energies,
  • information to the citizens,
  • cooperation with other local energy actors.

25
26
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (3)
  • To implement policies the municipality made use
    of two key instruments
  • the Civic Table on Energy (Taula Cívica de
    lEnergia)
  • the Local Energy Agency (BarnaGEL - Barcelona
    Grup de Energia Local).

26
27
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (4)
  • The Civic Table on Energy (municipal body)
  • created in 1994 as a result of a public hearing
    on environment and energy
  • involves local officials/staff from different
    departments of the city council with a local
    representative of a NGO energy platform Barcelona
    Saves Energy (Barcelona Estalvia Energia - BEE)
  • main objective to build complicities on energy
    from all people in different departments of the
    city council.

27
28
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (5)
  • The local Energy Agency BarnaGEL(independent)
  • EU-PERU (now SAVE) project, 1994
  • Main proposers Leicester City Council and
    Metropolitan Area of Barcelona
  • Other local Partners Ecoserveis (local NGO on
    energy environment), ICAEN (Regional Energy
    Agency of Catalonia) and UAB (Autonomous
    University of Barcelona)
  • Main objective to build complicities between
    local actors in order to develop energy projects

28
29
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (6)
  • The results of the work (1995 -1999)
  • doubling the solar th collector area
  • solar thermal from 700 to 1,350 m2
  • 29 times more solar PV collector area
  • solar PV from 80 to 2,400 m2
  • an EERE demo caravan
  • the Sustainable City Resources Centre
  • the Solar Law (Solar Ordinance)

29
30
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (7)
  • The solar/wind/efficient caravan
  • Equipment being used in Barcelona city and
    around Barcelona provinces villages and cities
    to show in real operation how a house could run
    with renewables and energy efficient appliances

35
31
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (8)
  • The Sustainable City Resources Centre
  • A municipal fixed facility equipped with a
    permanent exhibition with energy efficient
    devices and appliances and renewable energy
    devices. Its open to the public, free of charge,
    since May 1999.

35
32
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (9)
  • The Solar Law or the Barcelona Ordinance on
    Application of Solar Thermal Energy Systems into
    the Buildings
  • The Law enforces all the new buildings to be
    built in Barcelona (and all the integrally
    retrofitted buildings) to have Solar Thermal
    Water Systems to cover 60 of sanitary water
    heating needs.
  • Adopted by the Plenary Session of the Council
    (July 1999)
  • Mandatory since 1st August 2000.

32
33
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (10)
  • Solar Thermal Water Systems in all the existing
    municipal sports facilities.
  • Two first installations completed
  • Poliesportiu Torrent de Melis (74 m2 of solar
    collectors)
  • Piscina Bon Pastor (80 m2 of solar collectors).

33
34
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (11)
  • A PV Solar Roof at the two main buildings of the
    City Hall
  • EC Thermie Project
  • 1,000 m2, 100 kWp

34
35
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (12)
  • Efficient lighting systems at the City Hall
    Buildings
  • - replacement of all Incandescent Lamps in
    the City Hall buildings (October 1995)
  • - replacement of all old fluorescent lighting
    systems in a main City Hall building -8 flats-
    (April 1998) savings of more than 250,000
    kWh/year.

35
36
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (13)
  • Biogas valorisation from organic fraction of
    wastes
  • Garraf Landfill
  • 3 Methanisation Plants (75,000 tn each)

36
37
Realising the RE Potential the case of
Barcelona (14)
  • All that have not been possible without a lot of
    complicities, ranging from companies to NGOs.

38
Realising the EE and the RE Potential the case
of Barcelona (15)
  • The future
  • I hope that the work done until now will expand
    and in the next future we will see Barcelona city
    and its metropolitan area as a region where the
    Sun plays an important role as a energy source
    providing the required energy services (with
    end-use efficient technologies) for living
    lightly on the Earth.

39
CLEAN ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIESGlobal Peoples
Forum
  • Josep Puig i Boix
  • e-mail peppuig_at_eic.ictnet.es
  • web www.energiasostenible.org
  • END
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