Pastures and Hay Management For Horses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Pastures and Hay Management For Horses PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: ef7f4-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Pastures and Hay Management For Horses

Description:

Pastures and Hay Management For Horses – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:131
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 65
Provided by: bobhend
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Pastures and Hay Management For Horses


1
Pastures and Hay Management For Horses
  • Gary W. Wilson, Extension Educator
  • Agriculture Natural Resources
  • OSU Extension, Hancock County

2
Considerations when Planning Pastures or Hay
Fields
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Turn-out/exercise lot
  • Grazing
  • Supplementation
  • Most of Ration
  • Hay Management
  • In combination with Pasture
  • Can be very expensive or tough to do on small
    fields
  • May need different species

3
Turn-Out/Exercise Lot
  • Fresh air/sunshine
  • A little exercise
  • Short periods of time
  • No/little grazing expected
  • Manage mud . . .

4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
(No Transcript)
8
Basics of Horse Nutrition
  • Horses naturally use forages as a primary
    component of their diets. Adequate forage is a
    basic necessity for normal functioning of the
    horse digestive system. This requirement for
    forage is most easily supplied by pasture and hay.

9
Horses Daily Consumption of Dry Matter
Mature horses will consume 2 to 2.5 of their
body weight in feed each day. For example, a
1,000 lb horse should consume approximately 20 to
25 pounds (90 dry matter) of feed per day.
10
Points about Pastures
  • Pastures can provide a natural, healthy
    environment and are the least expensive feed
    source.
  • Well managed pastures can provide most of the
    feed requirements.
  • Mature horses will consume 2 to 2.5 percent of
    their body weight per day.
  • A 1000 pound horse will eat 20 to 25 pounds of
    dry matter.

11
Points about Pastures
  • Forage should make up one-half or more of the dry
    matter intake.
  • Horses will graze up to 17 hours per day. Compare
    this to cattle, which graze only about 8
    hours/day.

12
(No Transcript)
13
PASTURE NEEDS
  • Mare with foal 1.75 - 2.0 acres
  • Yearlings 1.50 - 2.0 acres
  • Weanlings 0.50 - 1.0 acres

Rule of Thumb 1 horse per 2-5 acres
14
PASTURE MANAGEMENT
  • The goal . . .
  • is to grow and use green leaves, leaving the
    forage plants in a condition to regrow rapidly
    during the rest period.

15
(No Transcript)
16
PASTURE MANAGEMENT
  • Soil test
  • Lime
  • Fertilize
  • Weed control
  • Seed

17
PASTURE MANAGEMENT
  • Avoid over or under grazing
  • Use rotational grazing
  • Develop 5 to 7 grazing paddocks
  • Rotate and rest paddocks to help keep grasses and
    legumes growing

18
Pasture for Grazing
  • Amount of land available may dictate whether this
    is the primary or supplemental source of feed
  • Determine animal units/amount of forage needed
    determine species of grasses and legumes size
    pastures and paddocks accordingly
  • Develop sacrifice area
  • Be prepared with additional areas or to feed hay
    in mid-late summer

19
Approximate Supplementation Rates for 1100 lb
Mature Horses on Pasture
20
Maturity has a greater effect on nutritive value
of forages than does any other factor
21
(No Transcript)
22
Forage Growth Curves
23
Additional Advantages of Using Pasture for Horses
  • Pasture can be the cheapest source of feed
  • Pasture provides sufficient fiber to the diet and
    helps control digestive problems associated with
    low fiber in the diet
  • Horses tend to be healthier in general when
    allowed access to good quality pastures
  • Housing in pasture for part or all of the day can
    reduce stress and improve disposition
  • Mares may have earlier ovulation rates when
    grazed compared to dry lot feeding of hay

24
Disadvantages of Grazing Horses
  • More cases of founder, especially in ponies, in
    poorly managed pastures
  • More injury from fences
  • A higher susceptibility to poisonous plants
  • Grazing behavior that can be detrimental to
    pasture plants when not managed properly

25
Usage Decision Nutrition or Exercise
The first decision is whether to use the pasture
for exercise purposes only or as a major part of
your nutritional program. If your desire,
however, is for pasture to serve as a feed
source, other factors need to be considered
including its potential nutritional value and its
carrying capacity.
26
Pasture Management
First, evaluate your current pastures to see if
they are adequate and just need better
management, or are they inadequate and need to be
renovated.
27
Adequate Pastures
  • If pasture species and stands are adequate but
    just need better management, remember yields on
    many pastures can be doubled simply by applying
    lime and topdressing with phosphate, potash, and
    nitrogen.

28
Pasture Improvement or Renovation
Step 1 Soil Test Step 2 Apply required lime
several months before the actual seeding. Some
type of tillage to incorporate lime would be
beneficial Step 3 Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and
Potassium
29
Remove Horses Before Fertilizing
  • Remove horses before fertilizing a pasture and
    wait until a rain before regrazing if possible.
    Sometimes, during the application process, small
    piles of fertilizer are left in a pasture. These
    piles occur mostly when the fertilizer
    distributor is stopped and some fertilizer pours
    out on the ground. The fertilizer in piles may
    be eaten by horses and could cause sickness.

30
Selecting a Pasture Mixture
  • 1. Keep the mixture simple.
  • 2. Select a species or combination of species
    that are suitable for your environment.

31
Seeding Mixtures Components
  • 1. One or more long-lived grasses
  • 2. A legume
  • 3. A cover crop, such as annual ryegrass or
    spring oats that emerges rapidly to prevent
    erosion and to control weeds.

32
Selecting a species
  • If pastures are to be frequently and closely
    grazed then mixtures containing combinations of
    Kentucky Bluegrass, Orchardgrass, endophyte-free
    tall fescue, ryegrass (perennial and annual)
    and/or white clover are best.

33
Selecting a Species
  • Species selected for use as a horse pasture
    should be high yielding, persistent, tolerant of
    the anticipated level of management and adapted
    to the region and to the soil conditions in the
    paddock. To generalize, nearly all species of
    forage crops can be utilized for pasture,
    especially if rotational grazing is practiced.

34
Species Selection Criteria
  • Soils site conditions
  • Production
  • Management other constraints
  • Compatibility in mixtures
  • Growth habits

35
Pure vs Mixed Seedings
  • Pure Stands
  • Easier management (especially for hay)
  • Mixed Stands
  • More satisfactory for pasture situations

36
Advantages of Mixtures
  • Legumes
  • Provide Nitrogen
  • Improve Quality
  • Improve Productivity, especially in summer
    drought conditions
  • Grasses
  • Reduce Erosion
  • Lengthen the Stand Life
  • Better Weed Competition

37
Species Selection for Mixtures
  • Match Species with Similar
  • Adaptation to Site
  • Persistence
  • Rate of Establishment
  • Time of Maturity
  • Management Requirements
  • Palatability

38
Forage Seed Mixtures Land-a-Lakes/FFR
39
Forage Seed Mixtures Barenbrug
40
Forage Seed Mixtures Ampac Seeds
41
(No Transcript)
42
GRAZING MANAGEMENT
  • Bluegrass begin 4-6 inches leave 2-3
  • Tall grasses begin 6-8 inches leave 3-4

43
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN PLANNING PASTURES
  • Shape and lay-out
  • Gate size and placement
  • Water availability
  • Fencing

44
Paddock Shape Lay-out
  • Follow soil types and topography
  • Rectangular shape better for horses
  • provides more exercise area
  • minimum width 20 to 40 feet
  • Horses will run the fence-lines

45
Gate Size and Placement
  • Gates should be located in corners
  • closest to the direction of travel
  • Wide enough for multiple horses to get through at
    once
  • Make them large enough to get equipment in
    ….mowers, fertilizer buggies, maybe balers

46
Water Availability
  • Adequate quantity and quality of drinking water
    is an important part of the grazing plan.
  • Place water troughs in the fence line near the
    middle of the paddock.

47
(No Transcript)
48
Fencing
  • Safety
  • Security
  • Ease of maintenance
  • Ease of installation
  • Cost
  • Appearance

49
Weed Control
  • Begin renovation by controlling serious weed
    problems. The most common serious weed problems
    in pastures are thistles and brush, These can be
    controlled by repeated mowing or with a timely
    application of an appropriate herbicide. Timely
    is the key word.

50
Seeding Dates for Grass Species
Sow a grass-legume mixture within time span shown
above except for a timothy-legume late-summer
seeding should be completed by Aug 15 to Sept.
1st.

51
Seeding Method
  • 1. Use the appropriate method of seeding
    based on extend of tillage. (firm
    seedbed)
  • 2. Several ways to sow forage crops
  • Grain drill with small seed legume box attached
  • Brillion seeder
  • No-till drill with small seed legume
  • Broadcast seeder

52
Seed Placement Criteria Uniform seed
distribution Precise depth Excellent seed-soil
contact
53
Pasture Management
  • 1. Avoid over or under grazing.
  • 2. Clip pastures regularly during the growing
    season.
  • 3. Drag pastures regularly during the growing
    season.
  • 4. Apply fertilizer as needed.

54
Grazing Behavior of Horses
  • The anatomy of the horse dictates that they will
    graze closer to the ground than most other
    species. This implies good pasture management
    through clipping and rotation must be
    accomplished to effectively use the pasture.

55
Horses Selective Grazers
  • Horses also tend to be more selective grazers
    than some other species. They will readily
    locate and graze the highest quality forage.
    Sward height, grazing time, and forage variety
    will be important factors in which forage will be
    grazed.

56
Location of main storage sites or reserve energy
in various forage species
57
Hay Harvest Management
  • Summer Harvest Timing
  • can generally use a 30 - 45 day schedule
  • intensive cutting can be done, requires
  • good fertility
  • moisture
  • Fall Harvest Cautions
  • increased heaving potential
  • increase chance of winter kill
  • roots need time to build up reserves
  • is the forage REALLY needed???

58
HEAVING
59
Hay Harvest Management Summary
  • Harvest management can have an impact on forage
    quality, yield, and stand longevity
  • Timely first harvest will achieve best quality
  • Be cautious when making a fall harvest
  • Maintain adequate fertility for stand quality

60
4 Main Losses with Hay Making
  • Respiration
  • Mechanical
  • Rain Damage
  • Storage

61
Hay Additives
  • Chemical conditioners (drying agents) Chemicals
    applied to forage during mowing that increase the
    rate of drying.
  • Hay preservatives Chemical applied at the time
    of baling that inhibits microbial growth in damp
    hay.

62
Key Factors in Making Good Quality Hay
  • Rapid dry down (less rain damage)
  • Minimize handling (less shatter)
  • Bale at proper moisture (prevent spoilage)
  • Store under cover (less spoilage)

63
Environmental conditions (In order of importance)
  • Sunshine (radiant energy)
  • Relative Humidity
  • Air temperature
  • Wind
  • Soil moisture

64
Make hay when the sun shines
65
Plant factors affecting drying rate
  • Species
  • grasses dry faster than legumes
  • Leaf to stem ratio
  • leaves dry much faster than stems
  • Stem diameter
  • mature stems are thicker, dry slower

66
Management factors affecting drying rate
  • Cut early to maximize exposure to sun
  • Mechanically condition all crops
  • Spread in wide swaths
  • Rake when crop is 50-60 DM
  • Consider chemical conditioning

67
Bale at proper DM
  • Too wet spoilage
  • Too dry excessive shatter losses

Small rectangular bales 20 moisture
Large round bales 18 moisture
Large rectangular bales 16 moisture
68
Evaluating Hay for Horses
  • Myth or Reality ?

69
1) The High Level of Protein in Alfalfa will
damage my horses kidneys.
  • Myth

70
2) Can I feed alfalfa cubes instead of alfalfa
hay?
  • Yes

71
3) Alfalfa is too rich for broodmares and young
horses.
  • Myth

72
4) Preservative-treated hay isnt safe.
  • Myth

73
5) A little mold wont hurt.
  • Myth

74
6) Hay that has been stored in the barn for a
year or more has lost its nutrient value.
  • Myth

75
7) Can large round bales of alfalfa be used for
horses?
  • Yes

and No
76
PASTURE AND HAY MANAGEMENT
  • The goal is to grow and use green leaves, leaving
    the forage plants in a condition to
    regrow rapidly during the rest period.

77
(No Transcript)
78
ÿØÿáEExif
79
(No Transcript)
80
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com