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Behavior Ecology

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Behavior Ecology. Behavioral Ecologist distinguish between ... Because it is high in calories which are the stuff the body needs to function ... Agonistic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Behavior Ecology


1
Behavior Ecology
2
Behavioral Ecologist distinguish between
proximate and ultimate causes of behavior.
  • Why do we like junk food?
  • Because it tastes good (proximate cause)
  • Because it is high in calories which are the
    stuff the body needs to function (ultimate cause)
  • These are different levels of explanation

3
2 Fundamental Levels of Analysis
  • Proximate
  • Causes of the behavior are the how questions.
  • Includes effects of heredity on behavior,
    genetic-environmental interactions, and
    sensory-motor mechanisms.
  • Ultimate
  • Causes of behavior are why questions.
  • Include studies of the origin of the behavior,
    its change over time, the utility of the
    behavior in terms of reproductive success.

4
  • Four Questions
  • What are the mechanisms that
  • cause behavior?
  • What is the developmental trajectory?
  • What is the survival value?
  • How did it evolve?
  • A possible additional questionWhat are the
    personal experiences of the organism?

5
  • Two characteristics that look the same can arise
    in two different ways
  • Homologycommon decent, e.g., the hand of a chimp
    and the hand of a human.
  • Analogyconvergent evolution e.g., wings.

6
Behavior
  • What an animal does and how it does it.
  • Result of genetic and environmental factors.

7
Behavior Ecology
  • Scientific field of study that looks how behavior
    is controlled and how it develops, evolves,
    contributes to survival and reproductive success.

8
Ethology
  • Study of animal behavior in its natural setting.

9
Innate Behaviors
  • Developmentally fixed.
  • A fixed action pattern is a sequence of innate
    behaviors that is largely unchangeable usually
    carried to completion once it is initiated.
  • Fixed action patterns are triggered by sign
    stimuli.

10
Imprinting
  • A combination of learned and innate components
  • limited to a sensitive period in an organisms
    life
  • generally irreversible

11
Many Behaviors Have a Strong Genetic Component
12
KinesisSimple change in activity in response to
a stimulus
Kinesis, like taxis, is a movement or activity of
a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus.
However, unlike taxis, the response to the
stimulus provided (such as humidity, light or
temperature) is non-directional. The two main
types Orthokinesis in which the speed of
movement of the individual is dependent upon the
intensity of the stimulus. Take, for example, the
locomotion of a woodlouse in relation to
temperature. With increased humidity there is an
increase in the percentage time that the
woodlouse will remain stationary. Klinokinesis
in which the frequency or rate of turning is
proportional to stimulus intensity. Both
orthokinesis and klinokineses result in
aggregations. However, it must be noted that the
stimulus does not act to attract or repel
individuals. The same prefixes used with "taxis"
can be applied to kineses
13
Taxis
  • An automatic movement toward or away from a
    stimulus.
  • Negative
  • Positive

14
Signal
  • Behavior that causes a change in a behavior of
    another individual.
  • Pheromones are chemicals signals that are emitted
    by animals.

15
Environments, interacting with an animals
genetic makeup, influences the development of
behaviors.
16
Learning
  • Modification of behavior based on specific
    experiences.

17
Habituation
  • Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey
    little or no information.
  • Simple Form of Learning

18
Cognitive Map
  • Internal representation of spatial relationships
    among objects in an animals surroundings.

19
Associative learning
  • The ability of many animals to associate one
    feature of their environment with another
    feature.
  • Classical Conditioning Learning to associate
    certain stimuli with reward or punishment.
  • Operant Conditioning Occurs as an animal learns
    to associate one of its behaviors with a reward
    or a punishment.

20
Cognition
  • The ability of an animals nervous system to
    perceive, store, process, and use information
    from sensory receptors.

21
Natural Selection Favors Behavior that Increase
Survival and Reproductive Success
22
Foraging Behavior
  • Includes not only eating, but also mechanisms
    used in searching for, recognizing, and capturing
    food.
  • It represents a compromise between the benefits
    of nutrition and the cost of obtaining food.

23
Mating Behavior Mate Choice
  • Seeking or Attracting a Mate
  • Selecting a Mate
  • Competing for a Mate

24
Agonistic Behaviors
  • Ritualized contests that determine which
    competitor gains access to a resource, such as
    food or mates.

25
Concept of Inclusive Fitness
  • Accounts for most Altruistic Behavior

26
Altruism
  • Occurs when animals behave in ways that reduce
    their individual fitness, but increase the
    fitness of other individuals in the population.

27
Inclusive Fitness
  • Total effect of an individual has on
    proliferating its genes by producing its own
    offspring.
  • Kin Selection Natural selection that favors
    the kind of altruistic behavior by enhancing
    reproductive success of its relatives.

28
Social Learning
  • Learning through observing others.
  • Sociobiology Applies evolutionary theory to the
    study of social behaviors.
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