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Biology Project


The success of cloning Dolly, the 1st mammal to be cloned from a ... Cloning is an affront to religious sensibilities,and interfering with the natural process. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology Project

Biology Project
  • Animal Cloning

(No Transcript)
  • 1.Introduction
  • 2.Technology and Processing
  • 3.Triggered Problems
  • 4.PROs and CONs
  • 5.Prospects
  • 6.Conclusion

  • Cloning of a more limited sort has been done
    for years - researchers have already cloned mice,
    frogs, and sheep with cells taken from embryos.
    The success of cloning Dolly, the 1st mammal to
    be cloned from a mature ewe, makes a stunning
    breakthrough. Since then, this reality of animal
    cloning stares us in the face and human cloning
    around the corner. Proponents of human cloning
    assists that this technology can lead medical
    science into a new epoch. However, many problems
    are also raised, such as moral and ethical
    arguments. Some protests afraid that cloning of
    human may damage the human species as well.

How Dolly was created
Nuclear Transfer Technology
  • 1.Nuclear transfer involves transferring the
    complete genetic material (the DNA contained in a
    nucleus) from one cell into an unfertilised egg
    cell whose own nucleus has been removed.
  • 2.A technique known as twinning exists, but can
    only be used before an organisms cells
    differentiate. All cloning experiments of adults
    mammals have used a variation of nuclear
  • 3.Nuclear transfer requires two cells, a donor
    cell and an oocyte, or egg cell.First, the donor
    cells are grown under special conditions in
    culture. In this way the number of cells can be
    increased by several orders of magnitude. It is
    also possible to make genetic modifications and
    to select just those cells in which the desired
    modification has occurred and multiply these up.
  • 4.Research has proven that the egg cell works
    best if it is unfertilized, because it is more
    likely to accept the donor nuclear as its own.
    The egg cell must be enucleated. This eliminates
    the majority of its genetic information.

  • 5.The donor cell is then forced into the Gap
    Zero, or GO cell stage, a dormant phase,
    different ways depending on the technique. This
    dormant phase causes the cell to shut down but
    not die. In this state, the nucleus is ready to
    be accepted by the egg cell.
  • 6.The donor cells nucleus is then placed inside
    the egg cell, either through cell fusion or
    transplantion. The egg cell is then prompted to
    begin forming an embryo. When this happens, the
    embryo is then transplanted into a surrogate
    mother. If all is done correctly, occasionally a
    perfect replica of the donor animal will be born
  • Method of Nuclear Transfer in Livestock

Remarks of Nuclear transfer Technology
  • 1. This technology could allow the production of
    genetically identical groups of animals which
    possess a desirable genetic trait.
  • 2. The work to date has shown the technology to
    be successful only in sheep.
  • 3. PPL Therapeutics hopes to use this technique
    to enable the production of new drugs for the
    treatment of a range of conditions using its
    transgenic technology. This could lead to cheaper
    drugs for currently untreatable diseases.

Triggered Problems
  • Cloning may trigger some problems
  • In fact,the adult female ewe is both the genetic
    mother and the genetic father of Dolly.And the
    female from whom the egg came and the female who
    gestated Dolly and gave birth to her are two more
    maternal to her.Which of these we would even call
    the parent to Dolly?Also,if youre cloning
    someone to replace a child who died,then you
    might love the new child especially dearly.But
    the new child might not particularly like the
    fact that was the reason it was born.

  • Creating animals with genetic defects also raises
    challenging ethical questions
  • Cloning would further violate human dignity by
    denying the intrinsic value of each human
    life,thereby viewing human being as commodities
    oppose surrogate parenting contracts,genetic
    screening of embryos before uterine implanting
    and sex selection abortion.Because a cloned
    person will not be created simply for their value
    as a person.

  • It seems clear that cloning from cultured cells
    will offer important medical opportunities.For
    example,to help to produce discoveries that will
    effect the study of genetics, cell development,
    human growth, and obstetrics.The advantages of
    cloning animals are displayed here.
  • 1.Producing a greater understanding of the cause
    of miscarriages
  • Cloning may lead to a treatment to prevent
    spontaneous abortions-help women who can't bring
    a fetus to term. Also, It might lead to an
    understanding of the way a morula (mass of cells
    developed from a blastula) attaches itself to the
    uterine wall. This might generate new and
    successful contraceptives.

  • 2.Generation of genetically modified animal
  • Cloning can generate genetically modified animal
    organs that are suitable for transplantation into
    humans.At present,thousands of patients die every
    year before a replacement heart,liver or kidney
    becomes available.A normal pig organ would be
    rapidly destroyed by a hyperacute immune
    reaction if transplanted into a human.This
    reaction is triggered by proteins on the pig cell
    that have been modified by an enzyme.
  • 3. Preventing child suffering heredity
  • Cloning could also be used for parents who risk
    passing a defect to a child. A fertilized ovum
    could be cloned, and the duplicate tested for
    disease and disorder.This could help the child to
    prevent suffering heredity.

  • 4.Cure damaged nervous system
  • Damage to the nervous system could be treated
    through cloning. Damaged adult nerve tissue does
    not regenerate on its own. However, stem cells
    might be able to repair the damaged tissue.Human
    can help to produce large number of cells.

  • To those against it,cloning presents as much a
    moral problem as a technical problem.Cloning is
    an affront to religious sensibilities,and
    interfering with the natural process. There are
    objections, regarding susceptibility to
    decrease,expense,and diversity.Their basic
    disadvantages to cloning research are as follows
  • 1.Reducing genetic variability
  • Producing many clones runs the risk of creating a
    population that is entirely the same, susceptible
    to the same diseases, and one disease could
    devastate the entire population.There are more
    probable events could occur from a lack of
    genetic diversity.
  • 2.Interfering with natural evolution
  • Cloning may cause people to settle for the best
    existing animals, not allowing for improvement of
    the species. In this way, cloning could
    potentially interfere with natural evolution.

  • 3.Risk of disease transfer
  • Risk of disease transfer between transgenic
    animals and the animal from which the transgenes
    were derived.e.g. If an animal producing drugs in
    its milk becomes infected by a virus, the animal
    may transmit the virus to a patient using the
  • 4.Genetic tailoring of offspring
  • The ability to clone humans may lead to the
    genetic tailoring of offspring. It is conceivable
    that scientists could alter a baby's genetic code
    to give the individual a certain color of eyes or
    genetic resistance to certain diseases. This is
    viewed as inappropriate tampering with "Mother
    Nature" by many ethicists.
  • 5.Detrimental effect on familial relationships
  • A child born from an adult DNA cloning of his
    father could be considered a delayed identical
    twin of one of his parents. It is unknown as to
    how a human might react if he or she knew he or
    she was an exact duplicate of an older

The future of Cloning
  • 1.Contributing the biomedical and pharmaceutics.
  • Through nuclear transfer,bio medical research and
    pharmaceutics, medicine and hormones can be
    produced. If human genes are introduced into
    other organisms, like pigs and sheep, these
    transgenic animals can produce human proteins.
    Animals can be used as "drug factories,"
    producing human proteins and producing
    insulin,used to treat diabetes.Transgenic sheep
    can produce a drug that is used to treat cystic
  • 2.Contributing to disease treatment
  • Cloning research may contribute to disease
    treatment,for example,skin cells could be
    reprogrammed into the insulin producing cells in
    the pancreas. These skin cells would then be
    introduced into the pancreas of a diabetes
    patient, allowing them to produce insulin.
    Parkinson's Disease is a degenerative disease
    affecting neurons. Cloning research could allow
    the reprogramming of cells into neurons to
    replace those damaged by Parkinson's.

  • 3.Contributing to organ transplantation
  • Through cloning, organ transplantation may become
    a more successful process. Although organ
    transplantation is a common occurrence, there is
    often a shortage of organs suitable for
    transplantation. Xenotransplantation,
    transplanting organs from one species to another,
    provides a solution to organ shortage. From
    future cloning research, human organs may be
    cultured from outside the body. In the future,
    humans might be able to clone their own organs
    for personal transplantation.
  • 4.Contributing to create a clone from the dead to
    duplicate extinct animals
  • If theyve been frozen or part of their tissues
    or blood has been frozen,then it might be
    possible to make a clone.It would be impossible
    to clone from an extinct animal because the whole
    nucleus will have disintegrated,losing all
    structure and causing all the DNA to degrade.

  • 5.Contributing to the improvement of gene
  • At present,nobody know what the genes are that
    give us our individuality,our characteristics,the
    genes that are associated with higher

  • In 21st century, genetic engineering is very
    important as well as information technology.
    Cloning seems set to become a vital technology
    for agriculture and medicine. We should point out
    that ,with the careful continuation of research,
    the technological benefits of cloning clearly
    outweigh the possible social consequences. In
    their minds, final products of cloning, like farm
    animals, and laboratory mice will not be the most
    important achievement. The applications of
    cloning they envision are not nightmarish and
    inhumane, but will improve the overall quality of
    science and life.

Member List
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  • Ng Ka Ying(Christy)7A
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