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Understanding and Protecting Our Home Planet

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Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program planning document identifies a global ... changes in land use/hydrological cycle alter Aeolian iron fluxes to ocean. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding and Protecting Our Home Planet


1
Field Campaigns
Paula Bontempi NASA Headquarters Ocean Color
Research Team Meeting 1 May 2008
2
Future Science A Blank Slate
Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program
planning document identifies a global ocean
mission with enhanced spectral resolution from
the UV to SWIR as the top priority future
mission. Measurements will contribute greatly
toward achieving all four ocean-related science
objectives identified in the NASA Carbon Cycle
and Ecosystems roadmap (circled in red, right)
1. How are ocean ecosystems and the biodiversity
they support influenced by climate and
environmental variability and change, and how
will these changes occur over time? 2. How do
carbon and other elements transition between
ocean pools and pass through the Earth System,
and how do biogeochemical fluxes impact the
ocean and Earth's climate over time? 3. How (and
why) is the diversity and geographical
distribution of coastal marine habitats changing,
and what are the implications for the well-being
of human society? 4. How do hazards and
pollutants impact the hydrography and biology of
the coastal zone? How do they affect us, and
can we mitigate their effects?
3
Field Campaign Ideas
  • Inquiry for ideas for field campaigns (LBA for
    oceans) went out to NASA PI list back in
    September 2007, and then out on the OCB list in
    March 2008
  • JGOFS
  • Southern Ocean GasEx
  • Arctic 2009-10
  • how and why are ocean ecosystems responding to a
    warming Arctic and Bering Sea and associated
    increased insolation
  • what are the impacts of the changing climate on
    Bering Sea and Arctic carbon chemistry,
    including ocean acidification and air/sea CO2
    flux?
  • what is the impact of changing ice sheet and sea
    ice structure on ocean margins/coastal ecology
    and river runoff, and how does this affect
    offshore fluxes of particles?
  • Make field work a regular component of the
    program plan, in support of new missions, in
    partnership internationally, to provide the basis
    for future science
  • Response
  • Field projects
  • Field campaigns

4
Field Campaign Ideas Field Work
  • POC Optical field work to validate CALIPSO
    observations/optical backscattering as a function
    of depth for POC ship/aircraft LIDAR/CALIPSO
    Gulf of Maine/S. California/Gulf of Mexico
  • Evolution/biogeochemistry/carbon fluxes
    associated with spring bloom characterizing
    oligotrophic summertime ocean under a range of
    iron supply Process study over global oceans
    underway measurements of biogeochemical
    properties in mixed layer, bio-optical
    properties, pigments, shipboard flow cytometry,
    mixed layer flow carbon balance studies, trace
    metals, POC
  • Support Argo program for float deployment
    compare/contrast protocols across groups/PIs
    matchups with remote sensing for resolving the
    full mixed layer is an undulating towed vehicle
    behind a steaming vessel (e.g. a Seasoar).
  • Primary production and phytoplankton
    absorption productivity normalized by
    phytoplankton absorption constant in surface
    ocean.
  • Ocean heterotrophy from remote sensing connect
    respiration to ocean color via its relationship
    to primary production, from coastal to open
    ocean, for net autotrophic production, net
    autotrophic respiration, community respiration
  • High-latitude remote sensing validation.
  • Coastal waters linking land/ocean/atm scientists
  • Ocean straits variability in ocean color
    across ocean straits can be used to estimate
    transports through the straits (Lombok, Indonesia)

5
Field Campaign Ideas Field Work
  • Multi-disciplinary field campaign to monitor
    carbon and phytoplankton changes in the Orinoco
    River plume and watershed
  • Linking tropical river plume biogeochemistry to
    remote sensing observations quantify and model
    biogeochemical linkages between C and N in
    Orinoco, Amazon River plumes as they spread
    across eastern Caribbean and Western Tropical
    Atlantic basins.
  • Systematic Estimates of Primary Production and
    Net Community Production Rates across the Ocean
    Basins the rate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake by
    the ocean in the future is how the magnitude of
    the biological carbon pump will change.
  • Self-shading correction for in-water radiometry
    validate models and apply to the vast array of
    in-water radiometers, function of the optical
    properties of the water under study
  • Episodic carbon export of benthic macroalgae
    (Bahamas) to the deep seafloor

6
Field Campaign Ideas Field Campaign on LBA
Scale
  • Terrestrial, Atmosphere and Coastal Carbon
    Fluxes and Exchanges in the Gulf of Mexico
    terrestrial and coastal carbon fluxes and
    exchanges carbon signal uncertainties, link to
    terrestrial C budget, role of shelf physics,
    ecological transformations, impacts of climate
    change, resource management
  • The applications of understanding sediment load
    into lakes and coastal waters from glacial melt -
    new applications of remote sensing and
    understanding implications of climate change and
    hazards in coastal zone with the glacial
    community, an intensive field effort to get AOPs
    and IOPs of glacial meltwater
  • Global Feedbacks between the hydrological
    cycle, land use, and natural ocean carbon
    sequestration processes in the coming century
    the ability of the oceans to naturally sequester
    atmospheric carbon dioxide decadal changes,
    changes in land use/hydrological cycle alter
    Aeolian iron fluxes to ocean.
  • North Atlantic circulation, biology,
    biogeochemical cycles are poised to change
    dramatically surface salinity and inhibition of N
    Atlantic Deep Water formation change. Time series
    in Azores link two time series further south and
    address a larger North Atlantic gyre
  • Plankton-climate interactions and tropical
    variability distribution of heat in the upper
    ocean, biology, chemistry, physics
  • Arabian Sea impacts of warming, monsoonal
    shifts on biology, biogeochemistry Indian Ocean
    impacts of warming, nutrient inputs, currents and
    variability, fate of PP, global
    change/anthropogenic impacts, higher tropic levels

7
Field Campaign Ideas Field Campaign on LBA
Scale
  • Antarctic and Arctic global change regions
    standard algorithm validation
  • Southern Ocean, gradients across polar front,
    two major iron-driven zonal transitions
    (smaller-Kerguelan massive Southern Drake
    Passage) need to be explored in relation to
    export flux, community structure, productivity,
    and how Fe affects this so Fe changes with
    climate can be better modeled.
  • For Arctic, receding sea ice, albedo,
    characterize sea ice bio-physical feedback
    Arctic river input, and changes with climate, are
    very important, CDOM from river (Arctic vs
    Antarctic.
  • microbial ecology, nutrient use and
    transformation, fluxes
  • NABE subpolar variability in biology and carbon
    fluxes modeling
  • Characterizing biogeochemical properties and
    carbon fluxes of the mixed layer over
  • oceanic reaches spanning a broad array of
    biogeochemical provinces or statesrelationshi
    ps between remote sensing optical properties and
    ocean mixed-layer characteristics, understanding
    of links between physical and geochemical
    forcings, ecosystem structure, and carbon fluxes
    (N. Atl, S. Pacific)

8
Field Campaign Ideas Field Campaign on LBA
Scale
  • Basin Scale Trends in Limiting Factors for
    Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Fixing
    Populations Central North Pacific Ocean
    nutrient factors controlling nitrogen fixation
    across major oceanic basins
  • Community composition in phytoplankton
    community ecology at the genetic level on the
    ecosystem scale a molecular biological approach
    to high resolution high throughput phytoplankton
    community composition determination validation
    of both direct and remotely sensed pigment and
    carbon biomass analyses polar oceans most
    rapidly affected by climate modification that
    will change amount of sea ice, ice edge,
    stratification, nutrient availability
  • Methane from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf
    Early Warning of Global Climate Change and
    Positive Feedback Global oceanic warming -
    methane releases from oceans, impact global
    climate, permafrost
  • Southern Ocean Biological Response to Iron
    deposition biogeochemical rate processes, GPP,
    NCP
  • Biogeochemistry, Biodiversity, Bio-optics with
    emphasis on remote sensing aspects,
  • to be conducted in several contrasting
    biogeochemical/ecological provinces of the ocean
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