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CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE COAL INDUSTRY

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CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE COAL INDUSTRY. Dr. Gerald Luttrell ... advanced coal-burning process that uses limestone or dolomite to adsorb harmful gases ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE COAL INDUSTRY


1
CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE COAL INDUSTRY
Dr. Gerald Luttrell Mining Minerals
EngineeringVirginia Tech
2
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

3
World Supplies of Fossil Fuels
4
Location of World Coal Reserves
5
Electricity Generation
  • Of the 1.1 billion tons mined in the U.S., 950
    million are consumed for power generation.
  • Coal provides more than half of our electrical
    power.
  • Coal and nuclear combined provide nearly 3/4s of
    our power.

6
Electricity Generation
  • According to EIA, domestic coal demand will
    increase 20 by 2020 (to 1.32 billion tons).

7
Electricity Generation
8
Why Coal?
  • Coal is the most abundant energy source in the
    U.S.
  • U.S. has 25-30 of global reserves.
  • gt90 of U.S. energy reserves are coal, while oil
    accounts for lt3.
  • U.S. coal deposits are equal to 2.5 times the
    world reserves of crude oil.
  • Coal allows the U.S. to have the lowest
    electricity rates of any free market economy.

9
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

10
Coal Problems
  • Based on the available supplies and expected
    demands for U.S. energy, the future for coal
    would appear to be very bright.
  • However, if coal is to meet our energy needs,
    several problems must be addressed
  • Health/Safety
  • Transportation
  • Utilization
  • Waste Disposal
  • Acid Rain
  • Global Warming

11
Coal Problems
12
Coal Problems
  • SOx and NOx Emissions
  • When burned, coal releases sulfur and nitrogen
    oxides that are converted to acids in the
    atmosphere.
  • More than half of sulfur dioxide and one-third of
    nitrogen oxides are from coal combustion.
  • 85 from coal-fired plants

13
Coal Problems
14
Coal Problems
  • Clean Air Act 1970
  • no limit for utilities built before 1971
  • 1.2 lb SO2/mm Btu limit for those built after
    1971
  • Clean Air Act 1977
  • 1.2 lb SO2/mm Btu for boilers built after 1978
  • 90 reduction for burning high-sulfur coals
  • 70 reduction for burning low-sulfur coals
  • Clean Air Act 1990
  • Phase I 2.5 lb SO2/mm Btu for 111 boilers
  • Phase II 1.2 lb SO2/mm Btu for all
  • air toxic studies mandated by Title IV

15
Coal Problems
  • Critical regulations and policy initiatives
    include
  • Regional Transport of Ozone
  • requires 22 eastern states and DC to further
    reduce NOx by 2003
  • Revised Standards for Particulate Matter/Ozone
  • reductions in emissions of NOx, SO2 and fine
    airborne particulates (review by Supreme Court)
  • Mercury Regulations
  • EPA asked to promulgate regulations for mercury
    reduction by 2003
  • Enforcement Initiative
  • EPA filed lawsuits against 8 utilities for making
    changes that required new source permits

16
Coal Problems
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Coal contributes greatly to the carbon dioxide
    production.
  • Natural gas produces 70 more energy per unit of
    carbon dioxide than coal.
  • This problem is compounded since coal-fired
    stations are only 33-37 energy efficient.

17
Coal Problems
CO2 Emissions
Million metric tons carbon equivalent
18
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

19
CCT Program
  • In the mid-1980s, the U.S. began a joint
    public-private investment in a new generation of
    clean coal technologies.
  • The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program resulted
    in 40 projects in 18 states with expenditures of
    5.6 billion (21 private to government).

20
CCT Program
  • The existing 305 gigawatts of coal-fired plants
    can be categorized as
  • Very large and relatively new units
  • profitable even in the face of new regulations
  • Very small and relatively old units
  • difficult to remain profitable
  • several slated for replacement by gas-fired
    stations
  • Moderate size and age
  • represent plants with significant remaining life
  • benefit greatly from continued development and
    deployment of clean coal technologies

21
CCT Applications
  • Before Combustion
  • Conventional Coal Preparation
  • Advanced Cleaning Processes
  • After Combustion
  • Flue-Gas Scrubbing
  • Sequestration
  • During Combustion
  • Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • IGCC Combustion
  • By Conversion
  • Gasification
  • Liquefaction

22
CCT Applications
  • Fluidized-Bed Combustion
  • advanced coal-burning process that uses limestone
    or dolomite to adsorb harmful gases
  • offers very high removal efficiencies and ability
    to burn nearly any coal (SOx/NOx lowered by gt90)
  • large DOE/utility projects to demonstrate this
    technology
  • widely applied today in the industrial boiler
    market

23
CCT Applications
  • Precombustion Technologies
  • advanced separation processes capable of
    removing impurities from coal prior to burning
  • generally the least costly option for "cleaning"
    coal
  • several advanced cleaning methods have been
    developed by DOE
  • emission reductions of 30-90 are possible,
    depending on the process and coal
  • a variety of chemical and biological processes
    have also been developed for coal cleaning
  • these methods are extremely effective, but
    generally too costly

24
CCT Applications
  • Precombustion Technologies (cont.)
  • many technologies now used by the U.S. coal
    industry (cleaner coals, lower costs, higher
    recoveries, enhanced competitiveness)
  • notable examples include column flotation and
    second-generation density separators
  • separation processes also applicable to other
    segments of the power generation cycle (fly ash
    upgrading, scrubbing, catalyst recovery, etc.)

25
CCT Applications
26
CCT Applications
  • Conversion Technologies
  • projects funded to convert coal directly into
    gaseous or liquid fuels by various chemical
    processes
  • liquefaction - coal is mixed with a recycled,
    process derived oil and hydrogen and then heated
    under pressure to produce hydrocarbon liquids
  • gasification - coal is reacted with air, oxygen
    and/or steam to form a gaseous product which can
    be used directly as a combustion fuel or chemical
    feedstock
  • processes convert coal into a form that is more
    widely accepted by the public and can be combined
    with other techniques to substantially reduce
    emissions

27
CCT Applications
Great Plains Synfuels Plant near Beulah, converts
lignite to natural gas
28
CCT Applications
  • Flue Gas Scrubbing
  • coal combustion gases treated to remove
    potentially harmful pollutants
  • approach widely practiced and capable of removing
    up to 90 of the sulfur emissions
  • scrubbing also generates problems of its own
    (high capital and OM costs, disposal of the
    waste sludge, increased carbon dioxide emissions)
  • EPA estimates that nearly half of all power
    plants will be fitted with scrubbers by 2010

29
CCT Applications
  • IGCC Combustor
  • new way to use coal to generate electricity
  • converts coal to gas prior to turbine combustion
  • 99 of sulfur, nitrogen and particulates removed
  • highly efficient (secondary heat used to produce
    stream for conventional power generation)
  • 3 full-scale plants in Florida, Indiana and
    Nevada (cleanest fossil fuel plants in the world)

30
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

31
CCT Program Achievements
  • Lower NOx control costs
  • 1970s 3,000/ton NOx removed
  • Today 200/ton NOx removed
  • 75 of plants now use low-NOx burners
  • Lower SOx control costs
  • 1970s scrubbers expensive and unreliable
  • Today one-fourth as expensive and reliable
  • savings to taxpayers of 40 billion since 1975

32
Coal-Fired Power Plants
33
CCT Program Achievements
  • Clean coal technologies implemented to date have
    been very successful.
  • Since 1970
  • coal use for electrical power generation has more
    than doubled
  • sulfur emissions have declined by 70 percent
  • nitrogen pollutants have declined by 45 percent
  • Continued use of coal depends on industrys
    ability to comply with increasing stringent
    environmental regulations.

34
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

35
CCT Program Goals
  • Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors (HAPPs)
  • 1990 CAA identified 12 elements in coal
  • good removals of non-volatile elements using
    standard coal preparation and ESP technologies
  • volatile elements (such as Hg) more difficult to
    control
  • EPA standards for Hg regulation by 2003

36
CCT Program Goals
  • CO2 Reduction
  • driven by concerns about global climate change
  • possibilities include gas capture/storage
    (sequestration) or recycling into useful products
  • current DOE goal is to capture/store at costs as
    low as 10 per ton of carbon sequestered

37
CCT Program Goals
  • How much SO2 will 1 ton of coal produce?
  • How much CO2 will 1 ton of coal produce?

1 ton coal x 1 sulfur 0.01 ton sulfur 0.01 ton
sulfur x 2 SO2/S x 2,000 lb/ton 40 lb SO2 40 lb
SO2 x 5.93 ft3/lb SO2 237 ft3 SO2
1 ton coal x 75 carbon 0.75 ton carbon 0.75
ton carbon x 2.67 CO2/C x 2,000 lb/ton 4,000 lb
CO2 4,000 CO2 x 8.62 ft3/lb CO2 34,500 ft3 CO2
38
CCT Program Goals
  • High-Efficiency Generation
  • traditional coal-fired plants convert 33-35 of
    coal energy into electricity
  • technologies under development (gas separation
    processes, advanced turbines, coal-based fuel
    cells) may boost efficiencies to 45-60 range
  • benefits include lower power costs (20 reduction
    estimated) and less pollution per unit of power
    (40 reduction in CO2 emissions)

39
CCT Program Goals
  • Vision 21 Concept
  • new fleet of zero emission power units
  • target date for development of 2015
  • possible coproduction of hydrogen, chemicals,
    fuels, commercial commodities, etc.
  • target efficiency gt80

40
NEPD Report
  • In his second week in office, President George W.
    Bush established the National Energy Policy
    Development Group (NEPD).
  • NEPD was directed to
  • develop a national energy policy designed to
    help the private sector, and, as necessary and
    appropriate, state and local governments, promote
    dependable, affordable, and environmentally sound
    production and distribution of energy for the
    future.

41
NEPD Report
  • NEPD released it findings and key recommendations
    for a National Energy Policy on May 17, 2001.

42
NEPD Report
  • Efficiency increases since 1970 have had a major
    impact in meeting national energy needs.
  • If the intensity of U.S. energy use had remained
    constant since 1972, consumption would have been
    about 74 higher in 1999 than it actually was.

43
NEPD Report
  • Over the next 20 years, growth in U.S. energy
    consumption will increasingly outpace U.S. energy
    production if production grows at the rate of the
    last decade.

44
NEPD General Recommendations
  • The NEPD Group recommends that the President
    direct the executive agencies to work closely
    with Congress to implement the legislative
    components of a National Energy Policy.
  • The NEPD Group recommends the President recognize
    unique regional energy concerns by working with
    the National Governors Association and regional
    governor associations to determine how to better
    serve the needs of diverse areas of the country.

45
NEPD Recommendations for Coal
  • NEPD recommends mandatory reduction targets for
    emissions of three main pollutants sulfur
    dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury.
  • NEPD recommends that the Department of Energy to
    continue to develop advanced clean coal
    technology by
  • Investing 2 billion over 10 years to fund
    research in clean coal technologies.
  • Supporting a permanent extension of the existing
    research and development tax credit.
  • Directing federal agencies to explore regulatory
    approaches that will encourage advancements in
    environmental technology.

46
Fossil Energy Budget
Activity Clean Coal Power Initiative Fuels
Power Systems RD Petroleum Gas Supply
RD Other Fossil Energy RD Program
Direction Total Fossil Energy RD
FY 2001 0 324,025 111,903 25,558 83,977 545
,463
FY 2002 150,000 159,801 51,499 15,700 72,000
449,000
Thousands of dollars
47
Clean Coal Power Initiative
  • The FY 2002 budget will increase funding for the
    Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI).
  • In FY 2002, CCPI will offer 150 million in
    matching funds for joint government-industry-funde
    d demonstration of new coal-fired power
    technology.
  • move innovations out of the research stage and
    into first-of-a-kind, full-scale tests
  • create partnerships with the private sector to
    smooth the transition from smaller-scale research
    to market applications

48
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Why Coal?
  • Coal Problems
  • CCT Program
  • Overview
  • Achievements
  • Future Goals
  • Summary

49
Summary
  • Coal is the most abundant, inexpensive and
    reliable energy resource available in the U.S.
  • Coal will continue to serve as the backbone for
    U.S. electrical power generation.
  • The coal industry has been well served by the
    development of clean coal technologies.
  • Lower costs
  • Reduced Pollution
  • Improved Efficiencies
  • The continued development of affordable clean
    coal technologies is in the best interest of the
    coal industry.

50
Thank You
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