The Life of WC-Co Cutting Tools Treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Life of WC-Co Cutting Tools Treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

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The Life of WC-Co Cutting Tools Treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation ... H. Hoche, E. Broszeit, E. Abele and C. Berger, Tribological properties and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Life of WC-Co Cutting Tools Treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation


1
The Life of WC-Co Cutting Tools Treated by Plasma
Immersion Ion Implantation
  • Authors I.E. Saklakoglu, N. Saklakoglu, V.
    Ceyhun, K.T. Short, G. Collins
  • Received 31 August 2006
  • Presented by Ben Crummett
  • Date 19 October 2007

2
Publication
  • Received 10 November 2005
  • Revised 8 May 2006
  • Accepted 16 May 2006
  • Available Online 17 July 2006
  • Published June 2007, International Journal of
    Machine Tools Manufacture Vol 47

3
Function of Paper
  • In this study, the tool life of plasma immersion
    nitrogen implanted tungsten carbide-cobalt
    cutting inserts has been investigated in
    machining of AISI 4140 steel.

4
Importance of Paper
  • Surface strengthening of industrial materials and
    tools is of great interest in industry, and ion
    implantation is one of the more effective
    techniques.
  • Plasma immersion ion implantation has emerged as
    a viable alternative to conventional ion
    implantation for specific applications.

5
References
  • 1 R.K.Y. Fu, S.C.H. Kwok, P. Chen, P. Yang,
    R.H.C. Ngai, X.B. Tian and P.K. Chu, Surface
    modification of cemented carbide using plasma
    nitriding and metal ion implantation, Surface and
    Coatings Technology 196 (2005) (13), pp.
    150154.
  • 2 B.C. Schramm, H. Scheerer, H. Hoche, E.
    Broszeit, E. Abele and C. Berger, Tribological
    properties and dry machining characteristics of
    PVD-coated carbide inserts, Surface Coatings
    Technology 188189 (2004), pp. 623629.
  • 3 S.C. Santos, W.F. Sales, F.J. da Silva,
    Sinésio D. Franco and M.B. da Silva, Tribological
    characterisation of PVD coatings for cutting
    tools, Surface Coatings Technology 184 (2004)
    (23), pp. 141148.
  • 4 C. Ducros, V. Benevent and F. Sanchette,
    Deposition, characterization and machining
    performance of multilayer PVD coatings on
    cemented carbide cutting tools, Surface Coatings
    Technology 163164 (2003), pp. 681688.
  • 5 M. Belmonte, P. Ferro, A.J.S. Fernandes, F.M.
    Costa, J. Sacramento and R.F. Silva,
    Wear-resistant CVD diamond tools for turning of
    sintered hardmetals, Diamond and Related
    Materials 12 (2003) (37), pp. 738743.
  • 6 A Anders, Handbook of Plasma Immersion Ion
    Implantation and Deposition, Wiley, New York
    (2000) ISBN 0-471-24698-0.
  • 7 G.A. Collins, R. Hutchings, K.T. Short, J.
    Tendys and C.H. Van Der Valk, Development of a
    plasma immersion ion implanter for the surface
    treatment of metal components, Surface and
    Coatings Technology 84 (1996) (13), pp. 537543.
  • 8 G.A. Collins, K.T. Short and J. Tendys,
    Characterisation of high voltage pulser
    performance in radiofrequency plasmas, Surface
    and Coatings Technology 93 (1997) (23), pp.
    181187.
  • 9 G.A. Collins, R. Hutchings, K.T. Short and J.
    Tendys, Ion-assisted surface modification by
    plasma immersion ion implantation, Surface
    Coatings Technology 103104 (1998), pp. 212217.
  • 10 M.P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern
    Manufacturing (second ed), Wiley (2004) ISBN
    0-471-65654-2.
  • 11 C. Blawert, B.L. Mordike, G.A. Collins, K.T.
    Short and J. Tendys, Influence of process
    parameters on the nitriding of steels by plasma
    immersion ion implantation, Surface Coatings
    Technology 103104 (1998), pp. 240247.
  • 12 C. Blawert, H. Kalvelage, B.L. Mordike, G.A.
    Collins, K.T. Short, J. Jiraskova and O.
    Schneeweiss, Nitrogen and carbon-expanded
    austenite produced by PI3, Surface Coatings
    Technology 136 (2001) (13), pp. 181187.
  • 13 R. Sanchez, J.A. Garcia, A. Medrano, M.
    Rico, R. Martinez, R. Rodriguez, C.
    Fernandez-Ramos and A. Fernandez, Successive ion
    implantation of high doses of carbon and nitrogen
    on steels, Surface Coatings Technology 158159
    (2002), pp. 630635.
  • 14 R.K.Y. Fu, S.C.H. Kwok, P. Chen, P. Yang,
    R.H.C. Ngai, X.B. Tian and P.K. Chu, Surface
    modification of cemented carbide using plasma
    nitriding and metal ion implantation, Surface
    Coatings Technology 196 (2005), pp. 150154.
  • 15 A.D. Anderson, M.H. Loretto and G.
    Dearnaley, Microstructural study of ion-implanted
    WCCo, Materials Science and Engineering 105106
    (1988), pp. 503507.
  • 16 J.S. Sun, P. Yan, X.B. Sun, G. Lu, F. Liu,
    W. Ye and J.Q. Yang, Tribological properties of
    nitrogen ion implanted WCCo, Wear 213 (1997),
    pp. 131134.
  • 17 J. Rech, Influence of cutting tool coatings
    on the tribological phenomena at the toolchip
    interface in orthogonal dry turning, Surface
    Coatings Technology 200 (2006) (1617), pp.
    51325139.

6
Flank Wear
  • In this study, the flank wear was measured to
    determine the performance of implanted cutting
    inserts.
  • Flank wear occurs on the flank or relief face of
    the tool.
  • It results from rubbing between the newly
    generated work surface and the flank face
    adjacent to the cutting edge.
  • Flank wear is measured by the width of the wear
    band.

7
Implantation Conditions
  • The cutting inserts were ultrasonically cleaned
    before plasma immersion ion implantation
    treatments.
  • Nitrogen implantations were performed, applying
    negative high voltage pulses of 30 kV.
  • The implantation time was 5 h and the temperature
    was in the range 320520 C. The implantation
    dose was about 21018 ions cm-2.

8
Implantation Conditions
9
Tool Life Testing
  • The machining trials were carried out on a
    universal lathe under dry conditions.
  • Orthogonal cutting experiments were performed on
    AISI 4140 steel.
  • The following cutting conditions were used in the
    experiments cutting speed Vc160 m/min, feed
    f0.08 mm/rev, and depth of cut2.5 mm.
  • Flank wear was measured by a microscope and
    Vb0.3 mm was selected as the wear criterion.
  • The surface roughness of the workpiece was
    measured at several locations along the length of
    the cut using a Mitutoyo model SJ 301 portable
    surface roughness tester.

10
Chemical Composition
  • Co Cobalt
  • W Tungsten
  • Ti Titanium
  • Nb Niobium
  • Ta - Tantalum

11
Nitride
  • After plasma immersion ion implantation treatment
    the surfaces were covered by orange-skin-like
    formations.

12
Nitride
  • PIII treatment leads to formation of nitride
    compounds, especially for steels.
  • The formation of nitrides in N ion implanted
    WCCo has also been reported by others.
  • Consequently X-ray diffraction studies were used
    to investigate whether the orange-skin formations
    were in fact nitride compounds.

13
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14
Nitride
  • WC and WN X-ray peak positions are shown on the
    treated samples. As is well known, the radius and
    electronic structure of a nitrogen atom are
    similar to those of carbon.
  • The implanted nitrogen replaces the carbon in WC
    W(CN), WN and/or WN forms in the subsurface.
  • Both WN and WC have a hexagonal close-packed
    lattice structure and similar lattice parameters
    it is very difficult to distinguish their X-ray
    peaks.
  • Therefore it is difficult to definitively prove
    WN formations.

15
Tool wear as a function of cutting time
16
Tool Wear
  • It was concluded that nitrogen implantation
    increased the tool life by about 85.
  • The best result came from 380 C5 h N2
    implantation conditions at a dose of
    21018 ions cm-2.
  • Changing the temperature did not give significant
    changes in tool life.

17
Experimental vs. Predicted
18
Surface roughness of workpiece as a function of
cutting time.
19
Conclusions
  • Plasma immersion nitrogen implantation increased
    the tool life by approximately 85.
  • Changed PIII temperature did not give significant
    changes in tool life.
  • Surface roughness of the workpiece decreased when
    using implanted tools.

20
Practical Industrial Use
  • Plasma immersion ion implantation has emerged as
    a viable alternative to conventional ion
    implantation for specific applications, such as
    the implantation of nonplanar components and in
    hybrid treatments such as high energy,
    ion-assisted deposition and energetic ion
    nitriding.

21
Technical Advancement?
  • Over the last 10 years, Collins and co-workers
    from Australian Nuclear Science and Technology
    Organization have studied the surface treatment
    using a plasma immersion ion implantation system
    of their own design which is described in
    reference 7.

22
Industries Most Impacted
  • Cemented carbides are used in a variety of
    important industrial components and parts, such
    as cutting tools, milling tools, mechanical face
    seals, drills, punches, submersible pumps, etc.
  • Depending on the viability any of the industries
    interested in surface strengthening of carbides
    could be impacted by this.

23
Questions?
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