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X-ray Principles

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X-ray Hazards. In the early days of radiography, the ... X-ray Injuries Still Occur ... With early x-ray machine, there was a real possibility of electrocution. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: X-ray Principles


1
X-ray Principles Physics Laboratory
  • Russell L. Wilson , CRT, RT(R)

2
Properties of X-ray
  • X-rays travel in a straight line and diverge from
    their point of origin.
  • X-ray photons have many different energies.
  • X-rays are highly penetrating.
  • X-rays are invisible.
  • X-rays travel at the speed of light.

3
Properties of X-ray
  • X-rays produce scatter radiation when they
    enter-act with matter.
  • X-rays affect radiographic and photographic film.
  • X-rays cause fluorescence of some materials.
  • X-rays cause biologic damage.

4
Properties of X-ray
  • X-rays respond according to the inverse square
    law.

5
X-ray Protection
  • Because x-rays cause biologic damage, the
    operator of the machine and the patient must be
    protected from the radiation.
  • Lead is used to absorb radiation.

6
X-ray Hazards
  • In the early days of radiography, the patient
    often was burned by the radiation.
  • With proper operation of equipment, x-rays are
    relatively safe today.

7
X-ray Injuries Still Occur
  • These are serial photographs on a patient that
    had multiple long fluoroscopic examination.
  • Last image is after skin graphs.

8
Patient Radiation Protection
  • Later in the quarter, we will covers methods
    used to keep the exposure to the patient as low
    as possible.
  • Keeping the exposure low is the responsibility of
    the operator of the x-ray machine.

9
X-ray Hazards
  • With early x-ray machine, there was a real
    possibility of electrocution.
  • Today with proper safety precautions, radiography
    is very safe for the operator.

10
X-ray Hazards
  • X-ray was also very hazardous for the operator in
    those early years.
  • X-ray operators would use their hands to make
    sure the machine was working .

11
X-ray Hazards
  • It was not uncommon for both the operator and
    patient to receive burns.
  • Today, with proper precautions, x-ray is safe for
    the operator.

12
The X-ray Room
  • The radiographic equipment consists of
  • The Tube Stand, Tube Collimator
  • Grid Holder or Bucky
  • Controls in the Control Booth.

13
The X-ray Room
  • The wall of the x-ray room and door are shielded
    with lead to protect the operator and staff.

14
Operator X-ray Protection
  • The Door to the X-ray Room contains lead.
  • It must be closed during exposures.

15
Operator X-ray Protection
  • The wall of the control booth is leaded. Stand
    completely behind the wall during exposures.

16
Operator X-ray Protection
  • Observe the patient or experiment through the
    lead glass window. No peeking around the wall!

17
X-ray Tube
  • X-rays are produced inside the x-ray tube.
  • Many properties of light and x-ray are the same.

18
Modern X-ray Tube
  • This is a modern rotating anode general
  • radiographic x-ray tube.
  • The leaded glass holds the vacuum in the tube.
  • Anode rotated to cool tube.

19
X-ray Collimator
  • Using light in the collimator, lead shutters are
    moved to restrict the area of exposure.

20
X-ray Collimator
  • Collimation is our best tool for reducing
    radiation exposure to the patient.

21
Observations
  • 1. Did the light field match the x-ray beam? Yes
  • 2. What principle did this demonstrate? X-ray
    s travel in a straight line line and diverge from
    the point of origin. X-rays have similar
    properties to light.

22
Observations
  • 3. Did the intensity of the fluorescence of the
    screen change when the kVp was increased? Yes
  • 4. Would this indicate that the intensity of the
    beam changed? Yes
  • 5. During the exposure could you see inside the
    phantom? Yes

23
Observations
  • 6. What property of x-ray did this demonstrate?
    X-rays are highly penetrating.
  • 7.After the tone from the control terminated, did
    the screen continue to fluoresce? No
  • 8.If the screen did not fluoresce, was there any
    radiation coming from the tube after the tone
    stopped? No

24
Observations
  • 9. Did you hear any noise coming from the tube
    after the tone stopped? Yes the rotor continued
    to rotate.
  • 10. What did you see on the film that was sitting
    near the phantom? A blurry image.
  • 11. What principle did this demonstrate? X-rays
    produce scatter radiation. Scatter radiation is
    not divergent.

25
The End
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