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Families in Lithuania: listening to the voice of social worker

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Law rate of children born in extra-marital families. Modern families: Decrease of marriages ... The modern defence of birth family and parents' rights ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Families in Lithuania: listening to the voice of social worker


1
Families in Lithuania listening to the voice of
social worker
  • Julija Eidukeviciute
  • Vytautas Magnus University, LITHUANIA

2
  • Settings and contexts are in large part made up
    of reproduced social relations and that means
    that social forms are reproduced over time
    because people generally replicate the habits,
    traditions, rules and stocks of knowledge that
    sustain there social forms.

Layder (1998)
3
HISTORICAL REVIEW
  • 13th century Lithuania emerged as a state
  • 17th century Lithuania was a part of
    Poland-Lithuanian Union
  • 1795-1918 - Lithuania was a part of Russia
    Empire
  • 1918-1940 - 1st Independence time

4
  • 1940-1990 - Lithuania was a part of
    Soviet Union
  • March 11 , 1990 Lithuania proclaimed
    independence
  • May 1, 2004 - Lithuania becomes a member of
    Europe Union.

5
(No Transcript)
6
Main features of Lithuanian social work
  • Social work is new profession (just 15 years)
  • Social work does not have clear identity for many
    people
  • Overemphasized material support
  • Reactive period blur proactive period.

7
  • Social exclusion existed in Lithuania during
    Soviet times, but not officially
  • Most social services were institutionalised and
    structured according to communist ideology.

8
  • Family transformation Transition from
    traditional to mordern families

9
Fundamentals for the transition of family model
  • Individualization
  • Emancipation
  • Freedom of person
  • Development of medical technologies modern
    contraception
  • (Stankuniene, 2003)

10
Traditional family
  • Early marriages
  • Family created by marriage
  • High rate of marriages
  • First child early age
  • Dominates avarage families
  • Law rate of children born in extra-marital
    families

11
Modern families
  • Decrease of marriages
  • Marriage delayed for later
  • Fertility decrease
  • Average family has 1-2 children
  • Increases number of bachelors

12
  • There appears changes not only in in economics,
    but also in family models.
  • Changes in labor market changes relationship in
    family.

13
Fertility rate in Lithuania
Year Births Deaths Natural increase
1939 54184 32983 21201
1960 62485 21611 40874
1990 56868 39760 17108
1994 42376 46486 - 4110
1995 41195 45306 - 4111
2002 30014 41072 - 11058
14
Extra-marital births rates in Baltic states
(percent)
  • Year Lithuania Latvia Estonia
  • 1945 7,8 - -
  • 1980 6,3 - -
  • 1990 7,0 16,9 27,1
  • 1995 12,8 29,9 44,1
  • 2000 22,6 40,3 54,5
  • 2002 27,9





    - -

15
Divorces per 100 marriages
  • Year
  • 1950 2,7
  • 1970 23,1
  • 1985 33,5
  • 1990 35,1
  • 1995 46,1
  • 2000 64,4
  • 2002 65,5

16
Families at social risk in Lithuania (1995 2004)
1995 2000 2001 2002 2004
Number of families 9,7 18.1 18.7 18.5 16,9
Children in them 25,6 40.3 42.8 40.0 36,9
17
Historical context
  • In the history of residential care of Lithunia
  • From 1956 state intervenes family life
  • Till then residential child care was designed for
    orphans and foundlings
  • After Lithuanian independence there are tryings
    to create settings which would implement child
    rights

18
Children who have lost parental care in
Lithuania (1995-2004)
1995 2000 2001 2002 2004
Total number of children who have lost parental care per year 2907 2597 2863 3003 3267
Of which under 7 years of age 1049 897 1080 1220 1340
Children who have lost parental care per year directed to private persons or families 1260 1287 1274 1359 1308
19
Main paradigms
  • Empowerment
  • Preventive services as alternative for family
    social exclusion
  • Power
  • Preventive services as alternative for family

20
Ways to intervene into family life
  • State paternalism
  • Child protection during Soviet times
  • The modern defence of birth family and parents
    rights

21
Perspective during period of Soviet Union
  • Care of neglected children was taken over the
    State which was considered of politics and
    ideology of Soviet Union.
  • Generation, which was taken into custody, was
    future communist society,
  • Future communist society was priority of all
    educational system

22
Perspective during period of Soviet Union
  • Just at the end would be noted childs needs,
    which werent individualized.
  • Parents had right and duty to care about their
    children according morality and values
  • Parental care shouldnt differ from the ideology
    and future vision of the State.

23
Perspective during period of Soviet Union
  • Special attitude to parents addicted to alcohol
  • Perception that parental rights can be terminated
    only then parents can change their behaviour but
    they are not making efforts.

24
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • This perspective can be associated with overt
    role of state intervention to family life.
  • The goal of intervention is to protect child
    rights and implement child welfare.
  • Biological bonds of parent-child relationship are
    not valued.
  • When biological parents are not providing certain
    quality of care, there is more favourable
    substitute care.

25
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • In this perspective intervention in order to
    protect children is quite extensive.
  • Children are protected from bad or poor parental
    care.
  • The role of social worker or worker in
    residential care can be described as mediator,
    which intervenes between parent-child
    relationship

26
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • Parenting becomes more standardized, which
    becomes more defined or imposed for parents.
  • Intervention of the state has character of
    punishment for the parents, who fail to fulfil
    these norms and parenting standards.
  • Intervention as such becomes more punishment than
    help and support for family.

27
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • Child Social worker Parent

28
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • Workers would intervene family life having notion
    if , then.
  • Usually planning intervention into family life,
    first step would be separate family, placing
    children to foster care,
  • after as punishment there would be presented
    requirements for parents, commonly mother, and
    social support would be prescribed as punishment.

29
State paternalism and child protection perspective
  • Parents are not participating in decision making.
  • Low priority is given for rights and liberties of
    parents.
  • There is decided for parents as for children too.

30
The modern defence of birth family and parents
rights
  • Biological bonds are important for children and
    for parents and is it possible family should be
    maintained
  • Bad parenting is linked to oppression of
    circumstances outside their control
  • Social worker is not the only active participant
    in helping process
  • Support and strength perspective

31
The modern defence of birth family and parents
rights
32
The modern defence of birth family and parents
rights
  • There is emphasis on the rights of parents as
    people in their own right.
  • Bad parenting is firmly linked with social
    deprivation and its concomitant pressures on
    families
  • circumstances outside their control
  • parents would be supported, empowered to
    overcome with issues, which they are facing.

33
Perspectives in child protection services
34
  • Girls will be taken to care institution. No one
    will ask their opinion. (Police officer)

35
Nongovernmental organizations
36
  • Communicating with Lina would be important to
    reveal as much as it is possible to accept
    knowing about ongoing processes and possible
    processes, that family situcation will change
    after mother will stop to drink...
  • (Social worker in nongovermantal organization)

37
Child protection officers
38
  • There is neet to visit the family house, take a
    look how they are living, what is real situation
    (Municipality social worker)

39
  • Thank You
  • for
  • attention
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