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Taxonomy and Classification of the Animal Kingdom Ch' 25, 26, 33

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Title: Taxonomy and Classification of the Animal Kingdom Ch' 25, 26, 33


1
Taxonomy and Classification of the Animal
Kingdom Ch. 25, 26, 33 34
2
  • Phyloeny Systematics

3
Introductory Question 4
  • Key Pages to review
  • Ch 46 pgs 964-965, 967, 970, 971, 974 976
  • Ch. 47 pgs 989-995
  • 1) Name three forms of asexual reproduction and
    give an example of an organism that does it.
  • Name five structures found in the human male and
    five structures in the human female. Name the
    cell that produces testosterone and other
    androgens in the human male.
  • How is oogenesis different from spermatogenesis?
    (pgs. 974-975)
  • Looking at figures a-e on pg 976, when LH levels
    peak what is going on in regards to the uterine
    lining (e) and ovulation (c)? What structures
    produce progesterone estrogen? What do these
    two hormones promote?
  • Name the four phases of the menstrual cycle. At
    what point does ovulation occur?
  • What does IVF stand for? Name three effective
    forms of birth control.
  • How is the acrosomal and cortical reactions
    different in the fertilization process? (Pgs
    988-989ch. 47) which process releases calcium?
  • In the development process how is the morula
    stage different from the blastula stage?
  • How is a protostome different from a
    deuterostome? Which one are we?
  • From the three tissue (germ) layers that form
    during development, which layers does the brain
    and spinal cord form from? (see pg. 999) What
    about your glands endocrine system?

4
Introductory Questions 5
  • 1) Name three differences between a protostome
    and a deuterostome. Give an example of an
    organism for each.
  • 2) How is coelomic cavity different from a
    pseudocoelomic cavity?
  • Choose the group that doesnt belong?
  • Planaria earthworms flukes
    tapeworms
  • Clams lobsters snails Squid
  • Plathelminthes Mollusca Nematoda
    Cnidaria
  • Spiders millipedes lobster
    Echinoderms
  • Tunicates lancelets salamaders sea
    urchins
  • 4) What is a cladogram and what is it used for?
  • 5) How are monophyletic, paraphyletic, and
    polyphyletic groups different from each other?

5
Mass Extinction
  • Permian
  • (250 million years ago) 90 of marine animals
    Pangea merge
  • Cretaceous
  • (65 million years ago) death of dinosaurs, 50
    of marine species low angle comet

6
Dinosaur Extinction
  • Cataclysms have destroyed major taxa, provided
    environments for new ones

7
Phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species
  • Systematics the study of biological
    diversity in an evolutionary context
  • The fossil record the ordered array of
    fossils, within layers, or strata, of
    sedimentary rock
  • Paleontologists

8
The fossil record
  • Sedimentary rock rock formed from sand and mud
    that once settled on the bottom of seas, lakes,
    and marshes
  • Dating
  • 1- Relative geologic time scale sequence of
    species
  • 2- Absolute radiometric dating age using
    half-lives of radioactive isotopes

9
Biogeography the study of the past and present
distribution of species
  • Pangaea-250 mya v Permian extinction
  • Geographic isolation-180 mya v African/South
    American reptile fossil similarities v
    Australian marsupials

10
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11
SYSTEMATICS
  • Study of the RELATIONSHIPS between organisms
  • Most relationships
    based on MORPHOLOGY
  • Can be misleading Problems w/
  • ANALOGOUS structures
  • HOMOLOGOUS structures

12
SYSTEMATICS
  • Ideally, all organisms at one level SHOULD have
    evolved from ONE common ancestor (monophyletic)

13
Phylogeny of Darwins Finches
14
More Objective Methods
  • NUMERICAL PHENETICS
  • CLADISTICS
  • BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS Differences in
  • Amino acid sequencing
  • (Hemoglobin especially useful)
  • Cytochrome c patterns
  • Mitochondrial DNA

15
Using Homologous DNA segments to plot species
divergence
16
Radiometric Dating of Fossils
17
Major Extinctions
18
Phylogenetics
  • The tracing of evolutionary relationships
    (phylogenetic tree)
  • Linnaeus
  • Binomial
  • Genus, specific epithet
  • Homo sapiens
  • Taxon (taxa)

19
Phylogenetic Trees
  • Cladistic Analysis taxonomic approach that
    classifies organisms according to the order in
    time at which branches arise along a phylogenetic
    tree (cladogram)
  • Clade each evolutionary branch in a cladogram
  • Types
  • 1- Monophyletic single ancestor that gives rise
    to all species in that taxon and to no species in
    any other taxon legitimate cladogram
  • 2- Polyphyletic members of a taxa are derived
    from 2 or more ancestral forms not common to all
    members does not meet cladistic criterion
  • 3- Paraphyletic lacks the common ancestor that
    would unite the species does not meet cladistic
    criterion

20
Taxonomy
  • Classification of "things"
  • Binomial system in
    Latin devised by Linnaeus.
  • Uses Latin for universality, conformity
  • common names too easily confused

21
Taxonomy
  • Organizes all organisms from most general
    (Kingdoms), to most specific (subspecies)
  • King Phillip Came Over For Great Sex
  • Kingdom --gt Phylum --gt Class --gt Order
    --gt Family --gt Genus --gt species

22
Constructing a Cladogram
  • Sorting homology vs. analogy...
  • Homology likenesses attributed to common
    ancestry
  • Analogy likenesses attributed to similar
    ecological roles and natural selection
  • Convergent evolution species from different
    evolutionary branches that resemble one another
    due to similar ecological roles

23
Scientific Naming
  • Begins with Genus (capitalized), ends with
    species (lower case)
  • Subspecies names go LAST OF ALL (lower case)
  • Sula leucogaster (Brown Booby) (Genus, species)
  • ALWAYS UNDERLINE (or italicize) ALL parts of a
    Latin name

24
Taxonomic Cycles
  • Trends based on new evidence
  • Splitters
  • Take one species and
    split into several
  • Lumpers
  • Make separate
    species merely
    sub-species of each other

25
Major Domains
26
5 Kindom System
27
Domain Break-downs
28
Comparing Phylogenetic Systems
29
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30
Archaebacteria Eubacteria
  • Prokaryotes
  • Single-celled
  • Phototrophs
  • Chemotrophs
  • Heterotrophs
  • Decomposers
  • Pathenogens
  • Symbiots

31
Protista
  • Eukaryotic
  • Single-celled
  • Hetero Phototrophs
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Some cause disease

32
Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • mostly Multicellular
  • Decomposers
  • mushrooms, molds, yeasts
  • symbiots

33
Plants
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Photosynthetic
  • algae, ferns, mosses, pine trees, flowering
    plants
  • annuals and perennials

34
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35
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36
Fertilization
37
Embryonic Development/Fertilization (See pg. )
  • Preformation until 18th century miniature
    infant in sperm or egg
  • At fertilization/conception
  • Acrosomal reaction hydrolytic enzyme action on
    egg jelly coat….
  • Fast block to Polyspermy membrane depolarization
    prevents multiple fertilizations….
  • Cortical reaction release of calcium causes
    hardening of egg outer layer and creates a...
  • Slow block to polyspermy and...
  • Egg activation increases metabolic activity
    protein synthesis

38
The Fertilized Egg Cleavage
  • Blastomeres resultant cells of cleavage/mitosis
  • Yolk nutrients stored in the egg
  • Vegetal pole side of egg with high yolk
    concentration
  • Animal pole side of egg with low yolk
    concentration
  • Morulasolid ball of cells
  • Blastocoelfluid-filled cavity in morula
  • Blastulahollow ball stage of development

39
Stages of Development
Germ layers Mesoderm- middle Ectoderm-
outer Endoderm- inner
Mouth-----Protostome Anus-----Deuterostome
40
Protostome vs. Deuterostome
41
Animal Phylogeny Diversity
  • 5- Protostome-Deuterostome dichotomy among
    coelomates protostomes (mollusks, annelids,
    arthropods) deuterostomes (echinoderms,
    chordates)
  • a) cleavage protostomes spiral and determinate
    deuterotomes radial and indeterminate
  • b) coelom formation protostomes schizocoelous
    deuterostomes enterocoelous
  • c) blastopore fate protostomes mouth from
    blastopore deuterostomes anus from blastopore

42
Chapter 33 Animals
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Motile
  • Heterotrophic
  • Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates

43
Def animal (n)
  • Unique characteristics
  • Heterotrophic eukaryotes ingestion
  • Lack cell walls collagen
  • Nervous muscular tissue
  • Sexual diploid cleavage blastula
    gastrulation larvae metamorphosis
  • Regulatory genes Hox genes

44
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45
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46
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47
Parazoa
  • Invertebrates animals without backbones
  • Closest lineage to protists
  • Loose federation of cells (unspecialized) no
    tissues
  • Phy. Porifera (sponges)

48
Phylum Porifera (pore bearer)
  • Sessile (attached to bottom)
  • Spongocoel (central cavity)
  • Osculum (large opening)
  • Choanocytes (flagellated collar cells)
  • Hermaphroditic (produce both sperm and eggs)

49
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50
Animal Phylogeny Diversity
  • Parazoa- no true tissues, ex. sponges
  • Eumetazoa all other animals with true tissues
  • Symmetry
  • Radiata Cnidaria (hydra jellyfish, comb
    jellies sea anemones) tenophora
  • Bilateria all other animals bilateral body
    symmetry (also cephalization)

51
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52
Vertebrate Diversity
  • Phy Chordata
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Superclass Agnatha jawless
    vertebrates (hagfish, lampreys)
  • Superclass Gnathostomata jawed vertebrates
    with 2 sets of paired appendages including
    tetrapods (4-footed) and amniotes (shelled
    egg)

53
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54
Animal Phylogeny Diversity
  • Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, and Coelomate
    Grades triploblastic animals solid body, no
    body cavity called acoelomates (Platyhelminthes-fl
    atworms) body cavity, but not lined with
    mesoderm called pseudocoelomates (Rotifers) true
    coelom (body cavity) lined with mesoderm called
    coelomate
  • Gastrulation germ layer development
  • ectoderm (outer)
  • mesoderm (middle)
  • endoderm (inner)

55
Coelomic Cavities
56
The Radiata
  • Diploblastic
  • Radial symmetry
  • Phy Cnidaria (hydra, jellies, sea anemones,
    corals)
  • No mesoderm GVC gastrovascular cavity (sac with
    a central digestive cavity)
  • Hydrostatic skeleton (fluid held under pressure)
  • Polyps and medusa
  • Cnidocytes (cells used for defense and prey
    capture)
  • Nematocysts (stinging capsule)

57
The Radiata
  • Phy Ctenophora (comb jellies)
  • 8 rows of comblike plates of fused cilia (largest
    animals that use cilia for locomotion)
  • Tentacles with colloblasts (adhesive structures
    that capture prey)

58
Eumetazoa The Acoelomates
  • Phy Platyhelminthes (flatworms, flukes,
    tapeworms)
  • Bilateral no body cavity
  • Predators, scavengers, parasites
  • Triplobastic mesoderm but, GVC with only one
    opening
  • Some cephalization
  • Many pathogens (Schistosoma, Cestodidias)

59
Eumetazoa Pseudocoelomates
  • Body cavity partially derived from mesodermally
    derived tissue
  • Phy Rotifera
  • 1st with a complete digestive tract
  • Hydrostatic skeleton
  • Parthenogenesis type of reproduction in which
    females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

60
Eumetazoa Pseudocoelomates
  • Phy Nematoda (roundworms)
  • Very widespread group of animals (900,000 sp. ?)
  • Cuticle (tough exoskeleton)
  • Decomposition and nutrient cycling
  • Complete digestive track no circulatory system
  • Trichinella spiralis

61
The Coelomates Protostomes
  • Phylogenetics debated….
  • Phy Nemertea (proboscis and ribbon worms)
  • Complete digestion and closed circulatory system
    (blood)
  • Phy the lophophorates (sea mats, tube worms,
    lamp shells)
  • Lophophore Circular shaped body fold with
    ciliated tentacles around the mouth

62
The Coelomates Protostomes
  • Phy Mollusca (snails, slugs, squid, octopus,
    clams, oysters, chiton)
  • Soft body protected by a hard shell of calcium
    carbonate
  • Foot (movement), visceral mass (internal organs)
    mantle (secretes shell) radula (rasp-like
    scraping organ)
  • Ciliated trochophore larvae (related to Annelida?)

63
The Coelomates Protostomes
  • Phy Annelida (earthworms, leeches, marine worms)
  • True body segmentation (specialization of body
    regions)
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Metanephridia excretory tubes
  • Brainlike cerebral ganglia
  • Hermaphrodites, but cross- fertilize

64
The Coelomates Protostomes
  • Phy Arthropoda trilobites (extinct)
    crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps) spiders,
    scorpions, ticks (arachnids) insects
    (entomology)
  • 2 out of every 3 organisms (most successful of
    all phyla)
  • Segmentation, hard exoskeleton (cuticle)
    molting, jointed appendages open circulatory
    system (hemolymph) extensive cephalization

65
Insect characteristics
  • Outnumber all other forms of life combined
  • Malpighian tubules outpocketings of the
    digestive tract (excretion)
  • Tracheal system branched tubes that infiltrate
    the body (gas exchange)
  • Metamorphosis…...
  • incomplete young resemble adults, then molt
    into adulthood (grasshoppers)
  • complete larval stages (looks different than
    adult) larva to adult through pupal stage

66
The Coelomates Deuterostomes
  • Phy Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins, sand
    dollars, sea lilies, sea cucumbers, sea daisies)
  • Spiny skin sessile or slow moving
  • Often pentaradial
  • Water vascular system by hydraulic canals (tube
    feet)

67
Cladograms
  • How to make one and interpret one

68
Creating a Cladogram
69
Building a Cladogram
70
Building a Cladogram
71
Bear Family Relationships
72
Carnivore Connections
73
Chordates
  • Notochord longitudinal, flexible rod located
    between the digestive and the nerve cord
  • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord eventually develops
    into the brain and spinal cord
  • Pharyngeal slits become modified for gas
    exchange, jaw support, and/or hearing
  • Muscular, postanal tail

74
Invertebrate chordates
  • Both suspension feeders…..
  • Subphy Urochordata (tunicates sea squirt)
    mostly sessile marine
  • Subphy Cephalochordata (lancelets) marine, sand
    dwellers
  • Importance vertebrates closest relatives in
    the fossil record, appear 50 million years before
    first vertebrate
  • Paedogenesis precocious development of sexual
    maturity in a larva (link with vertebrates?)

75
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Retain chordate characteristics with
    specializations….
  • Neural crest group of embryonic cells near
    dorsal margins of closing neural tube
  • Pronounced cephalization concentration of
    sensory and neural equipment in the head
  • Cranium and vertebral column
  • Closed circulatory system with a ventral
    chambered heart

76
Superclass Agnatha
  • Jawless vertebrates
  • Most primitive, living vertebrates
  • Ostracoderms (extinct) lamprey and hagfish
    (extant)
  • Lack paired appendages cartilaginous skeleton
    notochord throughout life rasping mouth

77
Superclass Gnathostomata, I
  • Placoderms (extinct) first with hinged jaws and
    paired appendages
  • Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, skates, rays
  • Cartilaginous fishes well developed jaws and
    paired fins continual water flow over gills (gas
    exchange) lateral line system (water pressure
    changes)
  • Life cycles
  • Oviparous- eggs hatch outside mothers body
  • Ovoviviparous- retain fertilized eggs nourished
    by egg yolk young born live
  • Viviparous- young develop within uterus
    nourished by placenta

78
Superclass Gnathostomata, II
  • Class Osteichthyes
  • Ossified (bony) endoskeleton scales
    operculum(gill covering) swim bladder (buoyancy)
  • Most numerous vertebrate
  • Ray-fined (fins supported by long, flexible
    rays) bass, trout, perch, tuna, herring
  • Lobe-finned (fins supported by body skeleton
    extensions) coelocanth
  • Lungfishes (gills and lungs) Australian
    lungfish (aestivation)

79
Superclass Gnathostomata, III
  • Class Amphibia
  • 1st tetrapods on land
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders, caecilians
  • Metamorphosis lack shelled egg moist skin
    for gas exchange

80
Superclass Gnathostomata, IV
  • Class Reptilia
  • Lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodilians
  • Amniote (shelled) egg with extraembryonic
    membranes (gas exchange, waste storage, nutrient
    transfer) absence of feathers, hair, and mammary
    glands ectothermic scales with protein keratin
    (waterproof) lungs ectothermic (dinosaurs
    endothermic?)

81
Superclass Gnathostomata, V
  • Class Aves
  • Birds
  • Flight adaptations wings (honeycombed bone)
    feathers (keratin) toothless one ovary
  • Evolved from reptiles (amniote egg and leg
    scales) endothermic (4-chambered heart)
  • Archaeopteryx (stemmed from an ancestor that gave
    rise to birds)

82
Superclass Gnathostomata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Mammary glands hair (keratin) endothermic
    4-chambered heart large brains teeth
    differentiation
  • Evolved from reptilian stock before birds
  • Monotremes (egg-laying) platypus echidna
  • Marsupials (pouch) opossums, kangaroos, koalas
  • Eutherian (placenta) all other mammals

83
Order Primates (evolution)
  • Characteristics hands feet for grasping
    large brains, short jaws, flat face parental
    care and complex social behaviors
  • Suborder Prosimii lemurs, tarsiers
  • Suborder Anthropoidea monkeys, apes, humans
    (opposable thumb)
  • 45-50 million years ago
  • Paleoanthropology study of human origins
  • Hominoid great apes humans
  • Hominid (narrower classification)
  • v australopithecines (all extinct)
  • v genus Homo (only 1 exant, sapiens)

84
Human evolution
  • Misconceptions
  • 1- Chimp ancestor (2 divergent branches)
  • 2- Step-wise series (coexistence of human
    species)
  • 3- Trait unison vs. mosaic evolution (bipedalism,
    upright, enlarged brain)

85
The First humans
  • Ape-human split (5-7 mya)
  • Australopithecus Lucy (4.0 mya)
  • Homo habilis Handy Man (2.5 mya)
  • Homo erectus first to migrate (1.8 mya)
  • Neanderthals (200,000 ya)
  • Homo sapiens (1.0 mya?)
  • Multiregional model (parallel evolution)
  • Out of Africa (replacement evolution)
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