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Research based prevention strategies for youth: What works

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Title: Research based prevention strategies for youth: What works


1
Research based prevention strategies for youth
What works?
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky, Ph.D.
  • International Centre for Youth Gambling Problems
    and High-Risk Behaviors
  • McGill University
  • Singapore Problem Gambling Conference
  • July, 2007
  • www.youthgambling.com

2
Gambling/gaming has become normalized in our
society
3
What do we mean by gambling prevention?
  • Prevention programs are developed to reduce the
    likelihood of problematic gambling
  • Prevention can target different subsets of
    populations or special population groups

4
Prevention can occur on three levels
  • Primary prevention targeting intervention to
    individuals who have not experienced a gambling
    problem.
  • Secondary prevention targeting intervention to
    individuals exhibiting risky behaviors,
    inappropriate attitudes, and erroneous gambling
    cognitions.
  • Tertiary prevention treatment of those
    individuals currently experiencing a serious
    gambling problem.

5
Prevention Issues
  • Abstinence
  • Harm reduction/minimization

6
Lessons learned from research on youth substance
abuse
7
Substance Abuse Prevention
  • Focused around two concepts
  • risk protection and their interaction (Centre
    for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1999)
  • Protective factors balance and buffer risk and
    ultimately lessen the likelihood of engaging in
    risk-taking behaviors or buffer exposure to
    problems (Hawkins, Catalano, Miller, 1992)
  • Shift in focused prevention to focus on
    resiliency (Garmezy Streitman, 1974 Garmezy
    Masten, 1986 Lussier, Derrevensky Gupta, in
    press Luthar, 1992 Jessor, 1998 Rutter, 1979
    Werner, 1986)
  • Education (Derevensky Gupta, 1998a, 1999 2006
    Gupta Derevensky, 1999, 2000)

8
Gambling Prevention
  • Prevention through risk-reduction
  • individual
  • family
  • peer and social contexts
  • community context
  • Risk-reduction by enhancing protective factors
  • attributes of the individual
  • family support
  • environmental support
  • Using schools as a basis for prevention through
    promotion of social/personal competence

9
Goals of prevention
  • Improve knowledge
  • Increase awareness
  • Change inappropriate attitudes and/or encourage
    positive attitudes
  • Correct false cognitions, understandings,
    erroneous beliefs (odds, skill vs. luck,
    strategies, superstitions)
  • Behavior - prevent occurrence of excessive
    gambling - decrease/reduce excessive
    gambling patterns of behavior

10
Learning objectives
  • References to gambling within the context of
    perceived skill vs. luck. Gambling is primarily
    driven by chance. Teach youth through hands-on
    activities which contrast skill and luck.
  • Teach children that time and money is better
    spent on other activities or purchases.
  • Present the negative consequences of a gambling
    dependency and the positive consequences of
    making good decisions.

11
Learning objectives
  • Increase problem-solving skills.
  • Increase feelings of self-confidence.
  • Improve coping skills.
  • Teach individuals to make good decisions for
    themselves in the face of peer pressure and
    social temptations.
  • Note Each level of prevention should be
    developmentally appropriate. Not all objectives
    are addressed at all levels.

12
Examples of learning objectives (specific)
  • Introduce children to the notion of dependency
    and loss of control using concrete, familiar
    examples. These are then presented within a
    gambling context.
  • Review other activities that can lead to a
    dependency (smoking, alcohol, drugs) and add
    gambling as another form of potential addictive
    behavior.
  • Communicate that gambling problems can happen to
    anyone, including youth.

13
Current Prevention Efforts
14
Brochure targeting adolescents
  • Educate teenagers on the risks involved in
    gambling
  • Challenge certain myths about gambling
  • Includes a self-evaluation questionnaire and
    centres coordinates to get help
  • Distributed upon request and into schools visited

15
Screening cards for teenagers
  • Self-evaluation
  • Try to ensure students retain our coordinates

16
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17
Poster contest
  • Raise awareness about youth gambling problems in
    the schools
  • Winning posters printed and distributed to all
    high-schools

18
The true colors of gambling
19
Mouse pads for school psychologists and
counsellors
  • Raise awareness and ensure they have our
    coordinates
  • Distributed to schools visited

20
(No Transcript)
21
Elementary and High School Curriculum
Teacher manuals
22
  • Identifying personal risk and attitudes toward
    gambling
  • Distinguishing responsible gambling behaviors
  • Illusion of control personal risk
    characteristics risk for the development of a
    gambling problem
  • Superstitious behaviors
  • Knowing oneself and establishing limits
  • Information on self-screening and how to get help

23
  • Importance of having a positive self-image
  • Importance of friends as potential models
  • Many people influence us but we are still
    responsible for our own decisions
  • Peer pressure and how to resist by evaluating
    potential consequences
  • Concerns re transition to high school are
    addressed

24
  • It is important to start targeting children at a
    young age.
  • Our research indicates significant increases in
    gambling behaviors beginning at age 9 and 10. As
    a result, early interventions continuing through
    high school are most effective.

25
  • Children have the right to learn about the
    possible dangers inherent in excessive gambling.

26
CD Rom
Teacher manuals
27
CD-ROM
  • Two levels elementary/junior high and secondary
  • Self-administered but supervised by teacher
    (teacher manual included)
  • Information and education
  • Raising awareness in children and adolescents
    about the risks involved in gambling

28
  • Two types of activities
  • Gambling The player loses more than he wins
    and he is reinforced when quitting the activity
  • Skill The player receives accurate information
    on gambling and some attitudes and erroneous
    beliefs are challenged.
  • ? Protective factors

29
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30
Amazing Chateau
31
Hooked City
32
Workshops - schools
  • Elementary and High-School level
  • Highly Interactive
  • ? Targeted intervention
  • Themes Gambling definition, at-risk people,
    chance and independance of events, addiction,
    warning signs, help resources, stress management,
    coping, problem-solving skills, etc.
  • Requested by schools

33
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34
Did you know.
  • Gambling in adolescence
  • The facts you need to know

35
  • Any game of chance or skill that involves
    financial risk.
  • Lottery tickets
  • Cards for money (poker, blackjack)
  • Sports betting (sports pools)
  • VLT (video lottery terminals)
  • Bingo
  • Casino games

36
  • 4 of adolescents have a gambling addiction.
  • In every class of 25, 1 student would have this
    addiction.
  • Most are boys, but girls can also have a serious
    problem.

37
What type of person is more likely to develop
this problem?
  • Gambling pulls kids in from all types of
    families, economic backgrounds, ethnic groups,
    and religious faiths.

No one is immune
38
  • Enjoyment
  • Excitement
  • To win money
  • Escape problems
  • Feel important
  • Feel alive

Be careful
39
H T H T H H H
  • Which of the following represents the GREATEST
    ODDS for the three next coin flips
  • A) T T H
  • B) H H H
  • C) T H T
  • D) T T T
  • E) None of the above
  • F) Any of the above

40
2, 10, 18, _, _, _

/
  • Which of the following three numbers would
    provide us with greater chances of winning the
    6/49 lottery?
  • A) 19, 20, 21
  • B) 27, 39, 44
  • C) 23, 33, 43
  • D) 20, 30, 40
  • E) None of the above
  • F) Any of the above

41
Answers
  • Each flip of a coin is independent from the
    others, so each has equal odds of occurring
  • Each number on the ticket is independent from
    the other. 1 2 3 4 5 6 has as much chance of
    winning as any other sequence. Picking your own
    numbers does not increase your chances of
    winning.



/
42
Drug Gambling
addiction addiction
  • Cant think of anything else but doing drugs
  • Need more and more to maintain a high
  • Will do drugs at any cost
  • Cant stop even if they want to
  • Lying and stealing in order to keep doing drugs
  • Drugs help them escape lifes problems..allows
    them to forget
  • Consequences failing grades, problems with
    friends and family, risk of ending up in a
    detention center or jail
  • Cant think of anything else but gambling
  • Need to gamble more and more to maintain a high
  • Will gamble at any cost
  • Cant stop even if they want to
  • Lying and stealing in order to keep gambling
  • Gambling help them escape lifes problems..allows
    them to forget
  • Consequences failing grades, problems with
    friends and family, risk of ending up in a
    detention center or jail

43
  • Youre constantly thinking about gambling
  • Youre lying to friends and family about your
    gambling
  • Youre borrowing and stealing in order to gamble

44
  • A gambling addiction can be devastating. With
    help, people who are hooked on gambling can learn
    to stop.
  • Without professional help, they will risk losing
    everythingmaybe even their lives.

45
  • While most children and adolescents start
    gambling for fun, some end up with a serious
    gambling problem.
  • BE CAREFUL. This is an addictive pastime and you
    can get hooked before you know it. If you feel
    you must gamble from time to time, do it with
    moderation. Set limits, and respect those
    limits.

46
What type of person is more likely to develop
this problem?
  • Gambling pulls kids in from all types of
    families, economic backgrounds, ethnic groups,
    and religious faiths.

No one is immune
47
(No Transcript)
48
Clean Break
49
Part I
Part I
General questions about gambling and
problem-gambling
General questions about gambling and
problem-gambling ________________________________
_______
50
What are the characteristics of a gambling
addiction? How would you describe it?
What are the characteristics of a gambling
addiction? How would you describe it?
______________________________________
  • Loss of control cant stop or respect
    self-imposed limits.
  • Preoccupation.
  • Serious personal and social consequences.
  • Financial problems.
  • Illegal acts.
  • What else?

51
What kinds of gambling activities can result in a
gambling addiction?
What kinds of gambling activities can result in a
gambling addiction? ______________________________
________
  • scratch cards.
  • sports betting.
  • poker, blackjack.
  • bingo.
  • roulette.
  • gambling machines.

52
What are some of the warning signs that a
persons gambling is spinning out of control?
______________________________________
What are some of the warning signs that a
persons gambling is spinning out of control?
  • Change in personality.
  • Withdrawing from normal activities.
  • Lying, fabricating stories and creating excuses.
  • Gambling more than they can afford to.
  • Gambling more and more frequently.
  • School/work absenteeism.

53
What is it about gambling activities that makes
us want to keep playing despite losing so
often? _________________________________________
What is it about gambling activities that makes
us want to keep playing despite losing so often?
  • Intermittent reinforcement
  • Winning interspersed within losing outcomes,
  • creates the feeling that if you keep playing,
  • you will eventually win.
  • Misperception that gambling is an easy way to
    make money.

54
What is it about gambling activities that makes
us want to keep playing despite losing so
often? _________________________________________
What is it about gambling activities that makes
us want to keep playing despite losing so often?
  • Erroneous cognitions and an illusion of control
  • The belief that one can create a system or
    uncover
  • secrets that will result in
    big wins.
  • Reinforcing factors, such as excitement and
    escape
  • associated with gambling.

55
Part II Questions specific to gambling scenarios
56
________________________________________


What do you think the main message of the video
is?

Which scenarios were most effective in
communicating a message? _______________________
_________________
What emotions were triggered when watching the
video? ________________________________________

57
If you could ask Did anything, what would that
be? _________________________________
If you could sit down and talk to any of
the characters in this video, which one would it
be? ________________________________________ Wha
t would you want to know about them? _____________
_________________________________________________


58
Caroline and Marc ________________________________
_____
Caroline and Marc
  • Why is Caroline so upset?
  • Do you think this is the first time Marc upset
    her like that?
  • What makes you believe that?
  • Has Marc lost her trust? Can and should Caroline
    trust him?
  • What do you think Marc will decide to do?
  • (stop or keep on gambling)?


59
Sabrina and Chantal _______________________
Sabrina and Chantal
  • Do you think Chantal did the right thing by
    giving Sabrina
  • an ultimatum?
  • How can she help Sabrina?
  • What do you think Sabrina is thinking about on
    the bridge?
  • Do you think she went there for a particular
    reason?


60
Sophie and Samuel ______________________________
_______

Sophie and Samuel
  • What is the impact of Samuels parents problems
    on him?
  • Is his gambling the only obvious consequence,
  • or is it more extensive than that?
  • What was Samuels breaking point?
  • What do you think made him decide to try to put
    an end to his gambling?
  • Is calling a helpline helpful? If so, how? What
    else could he do?
  • Do you think its possible for him to stop
    gambling even
  • if his friends keep gambling?


61
Why do certain individuals develop gambling
problems while others do not? ___________________
_____________________   
  • People gamble for different reasons. Individuals
    who have not developed gambling problems report
    playing primarily for entertainment and to test
    their luck. They dont necessarily believe that
    they can win but rather set aside a certain
    amount of money for leisure activities that they
    feel they can afford to lose. In contrast,
    individuals with a gambling problem report
    gambling to escape their problems, to feel
    important, or to feel alive. They have difficulty
    setting limits (time, money) and believe they can
    recoup gambling losses by developing strategies
    to predict the outcome.

62
Are all people at risk for a gambling
problem?_____________________________
  • The answer to this question is controversial.
    Anyone can develop a gambling addiction in the
    same way that anyone can develop an alcohol
    problem. It is true that certain circumstances
    and personal traits can increase ones risks.
    However, it is important for adolescents to
    recognize that they are not immune, and that
    young people from all walks of life do experience
    serious gambling-related problems.

63
What should I do if someone I love, a friend,
family member or myself has a gambling
problem?_____________________________
  • Anyone struggling with a gambling problem should
    be surrounded by a social support network and
    they should be encouraged to seek professional
    help. Family members and friends can play an
    important supportive role by not enabling their
    gambling, being available to engage them in
    alternate activities, and ensuring that they are
    emotionally supported.

64

Closing questions _______________________________
______

Closing questions
  • What can help prevent the development of
    gambling problems?
  • What factors can lead to the development of a
    gambling problem?
  • What are the indications that someone has lost
    control over their
  • gambling behavior?

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