Chapter 5 The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Decline by 500 C'E' - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 5 The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Decline by 500 C'E'

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Title: Chapter 5 The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Decline by 500 C'E'


1
Chapter 5 The Classical Period Directions,
Diversities, and Decline by 500 C.E.
  • Basic themes throughout expansion and
    integration
  • Expansion philosophers commented on policy
    Confucius, Buddha and Socrates.
  • Integration involved two basic issues how to
    govern new territories how to create social
    cohesion
  • Chinese and India more successful than
    Mediterraneans

2
Shintoism Japanese religion that provided for
worship of political rulers and spirits of
nature. This was the basis for the worship of the
Japanese emperor as a religious figure. Rice god
major diety.
Tori Gate entrance to a Shinto Shrine
By 600 C.E. Japan was ready for elaborate contact
with China Animism a belief in the existence of
many spirits and demons which are found in the
natural world.
3
Olmec Central Americans first civilization
800-400 BCE. Developed agriculture, accurate
calendars. Powerfully influence on later
civilizations in the Americas.
Teotihuacan Followed the Olmec. Built the first
great ciyt in the Americas and developed the
first alphabet -400 BCE -400 CE
4
  • Beyond the Classical Civilizations
  • Axum and Ethiopia Axum defeated Kush around 300
    BCE. Ethiopia in turn defeated Axum. Both these
    African kingdoms had active contacts with the
    eastern Mediterranean world until after Rome
    fell.
  • The activities of Jewish merchants brought some
    conversions to Judaism in Ethiopians
  • Christianity was to Ethiopia from Greek-speaking
    merchants
  • Sahara Vast desert region of north Africa
    extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Nile river

5
Maya 300 900 CE Classic culture emerging in
southern Mexico and Central America contemporary
with Teotihuacan extended over broad region
featured monumental architecture, written
language, calendrical and mathematical systems,
and highly developed religion.
Mayan Pyramid
6
Inca American culture centered in the Andes
mountains. Domesticated the Llama
7
  • The Polynesians reached Fiji and Samoa by 1000
    BCE, they spread their civilization to Hawaii 400
    CE, by traveling in large outrigger canoes.
  • Highly stratified caste system under powerful
    local kings

8
Decline in China and India
9
Yellow Turbans During the decline of classical
China, the Yellow Turbans were a Daoist group
that promised a golden age that was to be brought
abut by divine magic Sui and Tang Chinese
dynasties that followed that fall of the Han.
Under Tang leadership especially, China enjoyed
one of the most glorious eras in its history.
Confucianism and the bureaucracy were revived.
10
Decline and Fall of Rome
  • Population declined
  • Leadership faltered
  • Economy flagged, tax collection became more
    difficult
  • Despondency pervaded much of citizenry
  • The fall of Rome shattered unities and reduced
    the level of civilization itself
  • Emperors Diocletian and Constantine slowed the
    spiral of decay
  • Germanic tribes invaded in the 400s, little power
    or will to resist.
  • Empire survived in the east as the Byzantine
    Empire

11
Syncretism The blending of cultures. Syncretism
connects most strongly with religions for
example, Christianitys adaptation of some of the
features of the Roman religion.
12
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13
The New Religious Map
  • Classical civilizations declined worlds major
    religions Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
    flourished
  • People sought solace in the spiritual world as
    their temporal world collapsing.
  • Christianity became widespread in the west
  • Buddhism grew in China and the East
  • Islam surfaced and became a dynamic force in the
    areas in between.
  • With Hinduism, Islam shared some commonalities
    intense devotion, piety, and hope for a better
    life after this one.
  • Each responded to political instability and to
    poverty. Each often took on features of local
    cultures, in a process called syncretism

14
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15
  • Christianity and Islam
  • Missionary activity even more than Buddhism
  • Jesus preached compassion with great conviction
    and charisma, but had few followers in his
    lifetime
  • Spiritual equality and afterlife replaced
    unsatisfying traditional polytheistic religion of
    the Romans
  • Appealed to women, who were offered leadership
    opportunities in convents and who were
    encouraged to worship together with men, which
    was unlike the practices in many faiths of the
    time.

16
  • Jesus of Nazareth - Jewish teacher who preached
    reforms in Judaism. His followers believed him to
    be the Messiah, the savior sent by God to redeem
    humanity.
  • Paul Early Christian leader who saw the faith
    in a different light. Instead of a reform of
    Judaism, Paul helped turn the faith into a new
    religion that welcomed non-Jews.
  • Pope Meaning papa or father bishop of Rome and
    head of Roman Catholic church.
  • Benedict Founder of monasticism in what had been
    the western half of the Roman Empire, established
    Benedictine Rule in the 6th century paralleled
    development of Basils rules in Byzantine Empire.
  • Augustine One of the greatest Christian
    theolgians. Bisho of Alexandria, Egypt.
  • Coptic Christianity Largest branch of African
    Christianity, centered in Egypt.

17
Islam Monotheistic religion in which the supreme
being is Allah and the chief prophet and founder
I Mohammad developed in the Arabian peninsula in
the 7th century C.E.
18
  • The World Around 500 CE
  • The major themes in world history
  • 1. Responses to the collapse of the classical
    empires
  • 2. Reaction to new religions that developed
  • 3. Increased skill in agriculture the
    development of early civilizations prepared parts
    of Europe, Africa, and Asia and the Americas for
    future changes.
  • Global Connections
  • Each of classical civilization radiated trade
  • Decline of classical authority meant overland
    routes became more precarious this sea lanes
    were used especially in Indian Ocean
  • Missionaries and nomadic raiders took advantage
    of more porous borders

19
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