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Age of the Reformation III

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Born out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and a physicians daughter Margaret ... Bought the pastorship of Glarus where he taught until 1516 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Age of the Reformation III


1
Age of the Reformation III
  • Erasmus, Zwingli, and Calvin

2
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • Born out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and
    a physicians daughter Margaret
  • After his mother died his guardians stole his
    inheritance and forced him into a monastery
  • 1486-1491 was a monk and became thoroughly
    disgusted with the institution
  • Obtained a bishops patronage, gained license to
    become a priest, and fled the monastery
  • Studied at the universities of Paris and Orleans
  • He had a pointy head

3
pointy head hiding under hat
4
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • He survived mainly by patronage living off of the
    many gifts given to him for his clever writing
  • Studied classics incessantly and was a deep
    thinker, called the father of Christian Humanism
  • Wrote prolifically, including many works which
    criticized monks, priests, and the papacy
  • He was continually in and out of favor with the
    papacy

5
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • He loved peace, but also morality and wanted true
    reform within the church
  • Lived Latin, he spoke very little of any other
    language including his native Dutch
  • Courted the favor of Pope Leo X, but never
    stopped criticizing the immoral things he did
  • Took no sides in the Protestant/Catholic debate
    resulting in him being to Protestant to be
    Catholic and too Catholic to be Protestant

6
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • Luther, Zwingli and most other reformers looked
    to Erasmus for teaching though he conflicted with
    Luther often
  • Luther was said to have hatched the egg Erasmus
    laid
  • Erasmus and Luther debated heatedly over the
    issue of Free Will, neither ever admitting the
    other was right
  • He died Feb. 12 1536 without a priest repeating
    O Jesus, have mercy Lord, deliver me Lord make
    an end Lord, have mercy upon me!

7
Ulrich Zwingli
  • Huldreich Huldrych Ulrich
  • Zwingel Zwingle
  • Zwingli

8
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531
  • Was born 7 weeks after Luther, Jan 1, 1484
  • His father was a town magistrate his mother the
    sister of a priest making him middle class
  • Grew up in a small town raised with Catholic
    doctrine by his family
  • Started college at 14 and finished with a master
    of arts in 1506
  • Bought the pastorship of Glarus where he taught
    until 1516
  • Was a humanist and a patriot, but not
    particularly religious

9
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531
  • Protested strongly against Swiss mercenaries
  • Was unchaste in the fashion of the day
  • 1516 due to political pressure he transferred to
    Einsiedeln where he studied scripture and the
    early church fathers
  • 1517 Started preaching against the abuses in the
    church, including a rejection of indulgences
  • He received a papal pension until 1520
  • 1519 became chief pastor in the Zurich
    Grossmünster, the primary Swiss church

10
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531
  • In Zurich he preached expositorially through the
    New Testament and gained great fame
  • He began preaching even more strongly against the
    sins that stemmed from the Catholic church
  • Zurich was struck by plague and Zwingli helped
    until he became infected as well
  • Lent 1522 Zwingli preached and wrote a tract
    rejecting the Lenten dietary laws
  • Gathered a petition from 10 priests endorsing
    clerical marriage, but was rejected

11
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531
  • The petition was rejected, but Zwingli entered
    into a secret marriage anyway
  • 1523 Published the 67 articles which inspired
    debate throughout Switzerland
  • 1524 Zurich and a few other cantons accept the
    evangelical position and become protestant
  • Two years after their secret marriage Anna
    Reinhart and Zwingli get married
  • The Protestants start mass icon destruction
  • Zwingli instituted the symbolic communion

12
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531
  • 1529 The protestants and Catholics started
    meeting in open war in Cappel
  • Against the advice of Zwingli several of the
    protestant cantons sought peaceful negotiations
  • They negotiated peace but didnt gain all of the
    hoped for concessions
  • 1531 The second battle of Cappel occurred as was
    inevitable
  • Zwingli led his troops and was injured while
    tending the wounded, later he was slain, his body
    burned, ashes mixed with a swines and scattered

13
(No Transcript)
14
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Born July 10, 1509 in Noyon la Sainte
  • Calvin grew up well educated in a noble family
  • At 12 he received the tonsure and the revenue of
    a chaplaincy in the cathedral of Noyon
  • At 18 he received the charge of S. Martin
  • At 14 he entered college studying first in Paris
    then in Orleans and Bourges
  • A good student, religious and not prone to
    excesses, was nicknamed The Accusative

15
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Calvin studied the humanities law, philosophy,
    and theology
  • He was an exceptional student who was teaching as
    often as taking classes
  • 1532-33 Calvin converted to Protestantism
  • Shortly after his conversion he became a leading
    figure in the French evangelical party
  • Paris started a mass persecution of Protestants
    leading Calvin to flee to Basel where he wrote
    the first edition of The Institutes

16
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • 1536 Calvin continued his travels through
    Switzerland and went to Geneva where he planned
    to spend the night
  • William Farel convinced him to stay and become
    pastor in Geneva
  • Calvin was well received and started preaching
    and reforming Geneva into a moral city
  • He endorsed the enforcement of moral laws
    enforced by magistrates throughout Geneva causing
    great discontent

17
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • All citizens were forced to take an oath of
    confession or be banished
  • The moral laws and forced confession caused the
    reformers to be expelled from Geneva
  • Calvin moved to Strassburg where he lived poorly
    but happily
  • He taught both in churches and universities
    learning much of/from the Lutherans
  • Started the little French church for the many
    French refugees

18
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • 1540 in Strassburg Calvin married Idelette de
    Bure a member of his congregation.
  • In the meantime Geneva suffered from a lack of
    preaching and leadership and ultimately decided
    to call back the reformers
  • Strassburg and Geneva fought over Calvin, and
    Calvin ultimately and somewhat unwillingly
    returned to Geneva
  • Geneva as a result was dramatically reformed,
    especially in the enforcement of moral law

19
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Geneva epitomized the union of church and state
    led by Calvins moral dictates
  • Immoral behavior included dancing, gambling,
    drunkenness, frequenting taverns, profanity,
    luxury, excesses of entertainment, extravagant or
    immodest dress, singing licentious or irreligious
    songs and were all punishable by censure, fine,
    or imprisonment
  • The death penalty was allowed for heresy,
    idolatry, blasphemy, and repeated adultery

20
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Miguel Servetus fleeing execution for heresy in
    France stopped temporarily in Geneva
  • Calvin had him arrested, he was then tried, found
    a heretic, and burned at the stake
  • The Servetus incident was a particularly black
    mark on Geneva and Calvin, belying much of the
    Protestant preached freedom
  • 1563 Calvin became sick, then bed ridden
    eventually dying peacefully at home in May of 1564

21
Calvins Theology
  • Predestination
  • Double predestination, God appoints the elect to
    heaven and the damned to hell
  • O man who art thou that repliest against God?
  • Infant Baptism
  • An evidence of membership in the church and an
    inspiration to a later on moral life
  • Infant Salvation
  • Only if the parents were believers
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