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The Taiping religious zeal gave the movement fanatical vigour but reduced the breadth of its appeal

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Title: The Taiping religious zeal gave the movement fanatical vigour but reduced the breadth of its appeal


1
The Taiping religious zeal gave the movement
fanatical vigour but reduced the breadth of its
appeal. Discuss.
History Essay Presentation
Group Members Gloria Chan (2)
Joyce Lau (11)
Sharon Lei (15) F. 6A
2
  • 1st part - How the Taiping religious zeal gave
    the movement fanatical vigour

3
What was the Taiping religious zeal ?
  • Taiping religion A blend of various religions
  • Traditional Chinese religions Daoism Buddhism
  • Foreign religion Christianity

4
Why and how did the Taiping religious zeal give
the movement fanatical vigour ?
5
  • 1846-1850s
  • Circumstances in Guangxi

6
  • (A) Natural Hazard
  • 1849 A Plague (??) broke out ? Many people
    suffered and died
  • Belief of the Taiping religion
  • ? The ones who believe in God would not
    be contaminated
  • Many people were baptized.

7
  • (B) Regional Conflicts
  • 1850s Conflicts between Hakkas and Putis in
    Guangxi ? Puntis outnumbered the Hakkas
  • Hakkas were defeated and their houses were being
    destroyed
  • Belief of the Taiping religion
  • ? God will be the shelter for all the ones in
    need

8
  • (C) Poverty
  • Peasants got no land
  • Lived a hard life
  • Suffered low living standardBelief of the
    Taiping religion
  • Egalitarianism
  • Communal ownership was advocated

9
The people at that time needed spiritual
consolation
  • The beliefs of the Taipings
  • Utopianism
  • God would give people what they wanted (e.g.
    health)

10
  • Therefore, many people, especially the ones
    who suffered, like the poor peasants, the Hakkas
    or those victims of the plague, felt hopeless and
    their only hope was to join the Taiping Movement
    so that God would bestow blessings on them.

11
In what ways were the initial supporters
fanatical ?
  • ? Prayed together
  • ? Formed communions
  • ? Destroyed the sculptures of the idols
  • ? Burned the classics

12
  • ? Asked all their family members to get baptized
  • ? Did missionary work
  • ? Organized religious exercise
  • Soldiers believed Fight the war against the
    evil, when he died, he would be sent to
    the heaven, so the soldiers were fearless
    and brave to fight.
  • At the end of the movement, the supporters
    preferred death to surrender

13
  • 2nd part -How the Taiping religious zeal reduced
    the breadth (width) of its appeal??

14
Which groups of people didnt support the
Taipings due to its religious zeal ? Why?
  • 1) Confucian-minded literati
  • 2) Scholar-officials
  • 3) Peasant masses
  • 4) Secret Societies
  • 5) Foreigners

15
1. Confucian-minded literati
  • Alienated by the religious zeal of the Taipings
  • People should worship God and should not worship
    evil spirit? Destruction of temples and idols
    and shrines
  • Forbade the influence of Confucianism ? Forbade
    people to read bogey books
  • ? bogey books were works of Confucius and
    Mencius
  • Evidence (Historical Documentary in1854 )
  • All books by Confucius, Mencius, the various
    philosophers, and the hundred schools, all the
    devilish books and heretical theories, must be
    burned and eliminated and no one permitted to
    buy, sell, possess, or read them, or punishment
    shall be levied. said Hong Xiuchuan.
  • Law was passed in 1855, in which punishment was
    stated more clearly
  • ? Eliminating Confucian tendencies in thought and
    act.

16
2. Scholar-officials
  • Egalitarianism promoting equality and a new
    social order would be a threat to the
    scholar-officials who enjoyed high social status
    and they would lose privilege. Their social
    status depended on the preservation of the
    Chinese heritage. So, to defend their own
    interest, they didn't support the Taipings.

17
3. Peasant masses
  • All men being brothers and all women sisters
    /Universal brotherhood and sexual equality
  • V.S.
  • the Confucian ideas of propriety and social
    hierarchy
  • Ideological Dilemma
  • between Christian ideology and
  • Chinese traditional culture

18
3. Peasant masses
  • Examples
  • ? Forbade ancestor worshiping
  • ? Men and women were rigorously separated
    separate army units consisting of women
  • ? Married couples were not allowed to live
    together or have sexual relations
  • Private property ownership was abolished
  • Impact
  • ? Peasants were used to be traditional way of
    life
  • ? Various changes to peasants way of life
    brought about social disorder
  • ? Peasant masses passive, conservative -gt
    opposed the movement
  • ? Peasant mostly wanted to own land rather than
    shared the property among each other.
  • ? Weakened the solid foundation (peasants
    support) of the Taiping movement.

19
4. Secret Societies
  • ? Engrossed in traditional religions
  • Taipings rejected to cooperate with
    non-Christians. E.g. Refusal to aid the
    Small Sword Society when it occupied Shanghai in
    1853
  • Consideration of religion over nationalistic
    revolution disgusted the secret societies and
    failed to enlist the support from them
  • Secret societies were not willing to cooperate
    with the Taipings as some of their religious
    beliefs contradicted. E.g.The White Lotus Sect
  • Further worsened the relationships between the
    Taipings and the Secret Societies
  • Christian ideology upheld by the Taipings was
    considered as a foreign religion
  • The growth of antipathy towards foreigners
    appalled the anti-Manzu Chinese, including those
    who belonged to the secret societies.

20
5. Foreign Powers
  • The foreign powers were initially neutral
  • The Christianity upheld by the Taipings was
    unorthodox.
  • In religion, it was a mixture of Christianity,
    Buddhism and Daoism.
  • Some Christian concepts were twisted and even
    included some Confucius ideas from The Evolution
    of Li and The Grand Union
  • These elements were combined to become his
    so-called Christianity.
  • Foreigners, especially the Christian
    missionaries, were dissatisfied with Hongs own
    interpretation of Christianity as well as their
    pretension of universal overlordship.

21
THE END THANK YOU
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