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Reading Interventions for Tiers 2 and 3 Matthew Burns

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The systematic use of assessment data to most efficiently allocate resources in ... Itinerate. 5 Kids. Logistics. Lower Elementary. Grade K. 2 Classrooms 50 kids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading Interventions for Tiers 2 and 3 Matthew Burns


1
Reading Interventions for Tiers 2 and 3Matthew
Burns
2
RTI
  • The systematic use of assessment data to most
    efficiently allocate resources in order to
    enhance learning for all students.
  • Burns VanDerHeyden, 2006

3
R (or R or R) t I (or I)
  • Response or responsiveness or resistance
  • T to
  • Instruction or intervention
  • Standard protocol or problem solving

4
Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions (Burns,
Jimerson, Deno, 2007)
  • Tier I Universal screening and progress
    monitoring with quality core curriculum All
    students,
  • Tier II Standardized interventions with small
    groups in general education 15 to 20 of
    students at any time
  • Tier III Individualized interventions with
    in-depth problem analysis in general education
    5 of students at any time

5
What makes an intervention effective??
  • Correctly targeted
  • Explicit instruction
  • Appropriate challenge
  • Opportunities to respond
  • Immediate feedback
  • With contingent reinforcers

Burns, VanDerHeyden, Boice (2008). Best
practices in implementing individual
interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.)
Best practices in school psychology (5th ed.).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists.
6
Tier II
7
Tier II Interventions
  • PALS
  • HOSTS
  • Read Naturally
  • Rewards
  • Reading Rockets
  • Etc., etc., etc.

Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary and Comprehension
8
Assess 4 NRP Areas
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phoneme segmentation fluency
  • Phonics
  • Nonsense word fluency
  • Fluency
  • Oral reading fluency
  • Vocabulary/Comprehension

9
Tier II
  • Effective at least moderate ES
  • Costs Low as possible, cost/ES, cost effective
    (comes with a lot), dedicated teacher time
  • Delivery
  • Group/individual (two to six considering
    efficiency)
  • Total students (20)
  • Who - teacher supervision with some peer and or
    adult tutoring
  • Pull out in addition to, some pull out
    component, 3 to 5 X/week, approximately 30
    minutes (kinder 20min tops). No less than 8
    weeks.
  • Grades of kids earlier better, certainly K-2.
  • Measure fluency measure of reading weekly
  • Materials
  • Ease much easier if compiled, but not
    prerequisite
  • Availability standardized (manual)

10
Logistics
Teacher A 3rd Grade - 40 Kids
5 Kids
5 Kids
10 Kids 3rd Grade 60 Kids Total
Teacher L 5 Kids
Teacher B 5 Kids
Teacher J 5 Kids
Teacher D 5 Kids
Teacher F 5 Kids
Teacher H 5 Kids
Title 1 Teacher 5 Kids
Itinerate 5 Kids
Parapro A 5 Kids
Reading Specialist 5 Kids
Parapro C 5 Kids
Parapro B 5 Kids
11
Logistics
Title 1 and Reading Specialist
1030
930
1100
130
12
Tier II in HS First Half of Class
CONTENT SPECIALIST
INTERVENTIONIST
13
Tier II in HS Second Half of Class
CONTENT SPECIALIST
INTERVENTIONIST
14
National Reading Panel
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

Berninger et al., 2006
15
Instructional Hierarchy Stages of Learning
Haring, N. G., Eaton, M. D. (1978). Systematic
instructional procedures An instructional
hierarchy. In N. G. Haring, T. C. Lovitt, M. D.
Eaton, C. L. Hansen (Eds.) The fourth R
Research in the classroom (pp. 23-40). Columbus,
OH Charles E. Merrill.
16
Key Measures Accuracy Rate
  • Accuracy is measured to determine the appropriate
    level of difficulty
  • Indicator of acquisition stage
  • Percentage of items performed/words read
    correctly
  • Rate is measured as an indicator of proficiency
    with the skill
  • Number of items performed/words read correctly in
    one minute

17
Accuracy
  • Task difficulty is a critical component for
    struggling readers (Vaughn, Gersten, Chard,
    2000)
  • Appropriate level of challenge leads to increased
    task completion, comprehension, and time on task
    (Gickling Armstrong, 1978 Treptow, Burns,
    McComas, 2007)
  • Oral reading 93-97 known (Burns, 2007
    Gickling Armstrong, 1978 Treptow et al., 2007)
  • Non-reading tasks 70-85 known (Gickling
    Thompson, 1982)
  • 90 accuracy must be present for an individual to
    move from acquisition stage to proficiency
    (Haring Eaton, 1978)

18
Rate
  • Once a student is accurate, the main concern is
    rate of performance
  • CBM
  • Rate cut points are often based on normative
    expectations for the skill of concern
  • Accuracy gt 90 and rate below cut score indicates
    performance in the proficiency phase
  • Rate is an indicator of when a student moves from
    the proficiency to the generalization stage

19
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20
Comprehension
YES
Assess Fluency Fluent? (ORF)
START HERE
NO
Fluency Intervention Accuracy or Proficiency
Assess Phonetic Skills Adequate? (LSF, NWF)
YES
NO
Phonics Intervention Accuracy or Proficiency
Assess Phonemic Awareness Adequate? (PSF, ISF,
CTOPP)
YES
NO
Phonemic Awareness Intervention
21
Peter
  • Second Grade
  • NWEA test this fall, he scored at the 4th
    percentile for reading
  • Reading fluency score was 13 WRC/M
  • Well below average range.
  • Participates in Read Naturally, (where he is
    placed at grade level 1.0)

22
Peter
  • ORF 13 wcm with 60 accuracy
  • Phonics
  • NWF 24 sounds/minute with 67 known
  • 2nd grade rate cut score is 30 words/min
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • PSF 38 with 93 accuracy
  • Cut score is 35 sounds/min

23
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24
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25
3rd grade male Median fluency score was 30
words/minute with between 68 and 72 correct
(below 10th percentile) Nonsense word fluency
65 sounds (50 is established) correct/minute with
94 accurate
26
3rd grade male Scored below the 5th in reading 38
words/minute on grade level texts with 83.5
known Nonsense word fluency 62 correct sounds
per minute with 91 accuracy. (50 is established)
27
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28
Basics to Reading Intervention
  • Steps
  • I do
  • We do
  • You do
  • Standard Error Correction
  • This word/sound is _______
  • What word/sound is this?
  • Good, this word/sound is ______

29
Phonemic Awareness
30
Word Box
31
Rhyme - Acquisition
  • Provide Tell me a word that rhymes with bat.
  • Categorize Which word does not rhyme with bat-
    cat, big, or sat?
  • Judging Do bat and cat rhyme?

32
Blending - Acquisition
  • Two sounds What word does /a/ - /t/ make?
  • Entire word What word does /c/ - /a/ - /t/
    make?

33
Segmenting - Acquisition
  • Count How many sounds do you hear in sit?
  • Tap Tap your finger for each sound in the word
    sit.
  • Name Tell me the sounds you hear in sit.

34
Manipulation - Acquisition
  • Deletion If you take away the /s/ in sit, what
    is left?
  • Substitution Change the /n/ sound in next to
    /b/. What is the new word?
  • Reversal Reverse the sounds in net. What is
    the new word?

35
Phonemic Awareness Proficiency
  • Rhyme game
  • Sound game
  • Switcheroo
  • Consonant riddles
  • Picture searches
  • Row your boat
  • Sound of the day

36
Rhyme Games
  • Select a common song/rhyme (Twinkle Twinkle
    Little Star)
  • Recite it in a whisper
  • Say a word loudly when it rhymes
  • The ship is loaded with
  • Sit at a table or in a circle
  • You say the ship is loaded with (pick a word)
  • Toss or slide (on a table) a soft object to child
  • The child creates a rhyme

37
Consonant Blends
  • Give a two phoneme word
  • Lay, no, row, to, lie, rye, pie, low, ray
  • Have the child identify the two phonemes that
    they here
  • Add a consonant sound to the beginning to create
    a new word (e.g., lay and play).

38
Internal Consonant Blends
  • Give a two phoneme word
  • so, die, tie, boo, say, see, coo, sigh, pay, two,
    fee, go, bow
  • Have the child identify the two phonemes that
    they here
  • Add a consonant sound AFTER the first sound
    create a new word (e.g., so and slow).

39
Phonics Skills
40
Letter Names and Sounds
41
Explicit Phonics Instruction
  • d not duh

42
Say It and Move It
43
Word Sort
44
Column Header
Cat
Plate
Bait
First row modeled for student
Hat
Fate
Train
Bat
Cake
Afraid
Mat
Late
Paint
Student competes remaining items independently
Flat
Debate
Rain
Splat
Rake
Wait
45
Reading Fluency
46
Remember!
  • Independent Level
  • 98 - 100 known material
  • Instructional Level
  • 93 - 97 known material
  • Frustrational Level
  • Less than 93 known

Gickling Thompson, 1985
47
Supported Cloze
48
Listening Passage Preview
  • Strong intervention for children with high error
    rates and low fluency
  • Goal is accurate and fluency reading of this
    connected text. Hopefully generalizes to similar
    texts
  • Make sure student is paying attention be
    careful of subvocal rehearsal

49
Listening Passage Preview
  • Select a passage to student that he/she will read
    for class
  • Present the text and tell him or her that you
    will read aloud while he or she follows along.
    This will help him or her read the page better.
  • Tell the student to follow along with finger
  • Read the text at a comfortable rate while
    monitoring if child is following
  • Have the student read the passage aloud

50
Phrase Drill
  • Encourages words by word reading
  • Strong error correction technique
  • Likely to generalize learned words
  • Takes more time than other approaches to error
    correction

51
Phrase Drill
  • Have the student read a text while you highlight
    errors on an examiner copy
  • After reading the text, show the student your
    copy
  • Read the error word correctly to the student
  • If more than one error in a sentence, read the
    error words and model reading the sentence
  • Have the student read the sentence/phrase that
    contains the word three times

52
Repeated Readings
  • One of the oldest and most well-researched
    interventions
  • High OTR
  • Generalizes to passage and similar ones

53
Incremental Rehearsal
  • Developed by Dr. James Tucker (1989)
  • Folding in technique
  • Rehearses one new item at a time
  • Uses instructional level and high repetition

54
Mean Number of Word Retained
55
Correlation between retentionand receptive
vocabulary
  • 1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days
    30 days
  • TA .32 .27 .32 .23 .08
  • DS .22 .25 .17 .16 .20
  • IR -.16 -.13 .06 .04 -.07
  • These results are astounding (Daly McCurdy,
    2002 p. 457).

56
http//future-school-psychology.org
57
burns258_at_umn.edu
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